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Table 4 Effect of exercise on aerobic capacity and muscle strength based on an intention-to-treat analysis

From: Effects of an 18-week exercise programme started early during breast cancer treatment: a randomised controlled trial

    Baseline to 18 weeks (i.e., post intervention) Baseline to 36 weeks
   Baseline Within-group difference Between-group difference Within-group difference Between-group difference
   Mean (SD) Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] ES Mean [95 % CI] Mean [95 % CI] ES
Aerobic capacity             
 Peak VO2 (L/min) UC 1.8 (0.3) −0.2 [−0.3 to −0.1]   Reference   0.0 [0.0 to 0.1]   Reference  
  I 1.7 (0.4) −0.2 [−0.2 to −0.1] 0.0 [−0.1 to 0.1] 0.06 0.0 [−0.1 to 0.1] −0.1 [−0.2 to 0.0] −0.20
 Peak VO2/kg (mL/min/kg) UC 23.8 (5.2) −3.2 [−4.2 to −2.2]   Reference   0.3 [−0.6 to 1.3]   Reference  
  I 23.9 (5.6) −2.8 [−3.7 to −2.0] 0.5 [−0.8 to 1.7] 0.09 −0.7 [−1.6 to 0.2] −1.0 [−2.2 to 0.3] −0.18
 Peak power output (Watt) UC 156.7 (34.3) −19.5 [−24.4 to-14.6]   Reference   2.0 [−2.8 to 6.8]   Reference  
  I 152.3 (38.1) −13.4 [−17.8 to −9.1] 4.0 [−2.3 to 10.4] 0.11 0.1 [−4.3 to 4.5] −3.7 [−10.1 to 2.7] −0.10
 Peak heart rate (beat/min) UC 169.9 (16.6) −4.9 [−7.6 to −2.3]   Reference   −1.7 [−4.3 to 1.0]   Reference  
  I 167.6 (16.7) −2.8 [−5.2 to −0.5] 0.9 [−2.7 to 4.5] 0.06 −2.2 [−4.7 to 0.2] −1.6 [−5.3 to 2.0] −0.10
 VO2 at VT (L/min) UC 1.2 (0.3) −0.1 [−0.2 to 0.0]   Reference   0.1 [0.0 to 0.2]   Reference  
  I 1.2 (0.3) 0.0 [−0.1 to 0.0] 0.1 [0.0 to 0.2] 0.31 0.2 [0.1 to 0.2] 0.0 [−0.1 to 0.1] 0.12
 Power output at VT (Watt) UC 82.4 (33.8) −11.5 [−18.4 to −4.6]   Reference   15.7 [8.7 to 22.7]   Reference  
  I 80.7 (31.4) −2.7 [−8.9 to 3.6] 9.4 [0.5 to 18.3] 0.29 13.7 [7.4 to 20.1] −2.0 [−11.0 to 7.0] −0.06
Muscle strength             
 Right knee extensor peak torque at 60°/s (Nm) UC 106.0 (27.3) −4.3 [−9.6 to 1.0]   Reference   −3.4 [−8.6 to 1.8]   Reference  
I 102.6 (32.0) 4.4 [−0.5 to 9.2] 7.5 [0.9 to 14.2] 0.25 0.2 [−4.7 to 5.0] 2.7 [−3.8 to 9.3] 0.09
 Right knee flexor peak torque at 60°/s (Nm) UC 59.8 (22.7) −3.6 [−8.2 to 1.0]   Reference   1.4 [−3.6 to 5.9]   Reference  
I 58.6 (20.5) 7.8 [3.6 to 12.0] 9.1 [3.6 to 14.6] 0.42 8.5 [4.2 to 12.8] 5.8 [0.3 to 11.2] 0.27
 Left knee extensor peak torque at 60°/s (Nm) UC 97.7 (28.3) −4.2 [−10.6 to 2.2]   Reference   −4.2 [−10.4 to 1.9]   Reference  
I 96.4 (31.5) 6.7 [1.0 to 12.5] 9.9 [1.5 to 18.4] 0.33 2.7 [−3.1 to 8.5] 6.1 [−2.2 to 14.4] 0.20
 Left knee flexor peak torque at 60°/s (Nm) UC 61.3 (25.3) −3.6 [−9.15 to 1.9]   Reference   −0.4 [−5.8 to 4.9]   Reference  
I 59.3 (19.7) 8.3 [3.3 to 13.3] 10.1 [3.2 to 16.9] 0.45 4.6 [−0.5 to 9.6] 2.9 [−3.8 to 9.6] 0.13
 Right knee extensor peak torque at 180°/s (Nm) UC 58.0 (23.0) −0.3 [−5.5 to 4.9]   Reference   1.9 [−3.2 to 6.9]   Reference  
I 54.1 (22.4) 7.4 [2.7 to 12.1] 3.6 [−2.9 to 10.2] 0.16 7.4 [2.7 to 12.2] 1.5 [−4.9 to 8.0] 0.07
 Right knee flexor peak torque at 180°/s (Nm) UC 40.8 (20.6) 2.0 [−3.0 to 7.0]   Reference   3.7 [−1.1 to 8.6]   Reference  
I 41.6 (20.3) 6.5 [2.0 to 11.1] 3.1 [−3.0 to 9.3] 0.15 6.7 [2.1 to 11.2] 2.2 [−3.9 to 8.2] 0.11
 Left knee extensor peak torque at 180°/s (Nm) UC 51.0 (21.9) 0.0 [−5.4 to 5.5]   Reference   −0.9 [−6.2 to 4.4]   Reference  
I 49.1 (20.4) 5.1 [0.2 to 10.1] 3.9 [−3.2 to 10.9] 0.18 6.0 [1.1 to 11.0] 5.7 [−1.2 to 12.6] 0.27
 Left knee flexor peak torque at 180°/s (Nm) UC 39.1 (21.2) 3.4 [−1.1 to 7.9]   Reference   4.0 [−0.4 to 8.3]   Reference  
I 40.5 (19.1) 5.4 [1.4 to 9.5] 1.2 [−4.4 to 6.8] 0.06 6.6 [2.5 to 10.6] 2.4 [−3.1 to 7.8] 0.12
 Handgrip right (kgF) UC 31.8 (5.7) −0.9 [−1.9 to 0.1]   Reference   −0.7 [−1.7 to 0.4]   Reference  
I 30.4 (5.8) −0.2 [−1.1 to 0.7] 0.1 [−1.2 to 1.5] 0.02 0.1 [−0.8 to 1.0] 0.3 [−1.1 to 1.6] 0.05
 Handgrip left (kgF) UC 29.2 (6.0) −0.8 [−2.0 to 0.3]   Reference   0.1 [−1.1 to 1.2]   Reference  
I 27.8 (5.7) 0.2 [−0.8 to 1.2] 0.8 [−0.8 to 2.3] 0.13 0.6 [−0.4 to 1.6] 0.3 [−1.3 to 1.8] 0.04
Body weight (kg) UC 76.0 (15.4) 1.5 [0.8 to 2.3]   Reference   1.6 [0.8 to 2.4]   Reference  
  I 72.8 (13.2) 1.9 [1.2 to 2.6] 0.1 [−0.9 to 1.2] 0.01 1.6 [0.9 to 2.3] −0.1 [−1.2 to 0.9] −0.01
  1. VT ventilatory threshold, ES effect size, I intervention group, UC usual care group
  2. Between-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at 18 and 36 weeks, adjusted for age, hospital, radiotherapy, use of tissue expander, tumour receptor status, and the value of the outcome variable at baseline
  3. Within-group effects were assessed using mixed models including the measurements obtained at baseline, 18 and 36 weeks, adjusted for age, hospital, radiotherapy, use of tissue expander, and tumour receptor status
  4. Baseline results and within-group differences were based on participants having baseline measurements: body weight: 102 intervention (I) and 102 usual care (UC), aerobic capacity: 101 (I) and 98 (UC), leg strength: 78 (I) and 79 (UC), and hand grip: 98 (I) and 100 (UC)
  5. Between-group differences were based on participants for whom measurements at 18 or 36 weeks were available: body weight: 90 (I) and 79 (UC), aerobic capacity: 88 (I) and 76 (UC), leg strength: 69 (I) and 64 (UC), and hand grip: 90 (I) and 79 (UC)