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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Comparative efficacy of serotonin (5-HT3) receptor antagonists in patients undergoing surgery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Characteristic No. of studies * (n = 444) Percentage of studies
Year of publication  
1990–1994 25 5.63
1995–1999 141 31.76
2000–2004 110 24.77
2005–2009 107 24.10
2010–2013 61 13.74
Geographic region  
Asia 171 38.51
North America 118 26.58
Europe 108 24.32
Australasia 13 2.93
Multi-continent 12 2.70
Africa 11 2.48
South America 9 2.03
Not reported 2 0.45
Study design  
Randomized clinical trial 429 96.62
Cohort study 9 2.03
Non-randomized clinical trial 5 1.13
Controlled before–after study 1 0.23
Study conduct period  
1990–1999 11 2.48
2000–2009 45 10.14
2010–2013 8 1.80
Not reported 380 85.59
Duration of follow-up **  
0 to ≤6 13 2.93
>6 to ≤12 9 2.03
>12 to ≤24 319 71.85
>24 to ≤48 52 11.71
>48 to ≤72 14 3.15
>72 to ≤1 week 12 2.70
>1 week 3 0.68
Not reported 22 4.95
Interventions examined: frequency ***   
Serotonin antagonists Reported as administered alone (administered with dexamethasone)
Ondansetron 336 (46) 75.68 (10.36)
Granisetron 57 (15) 12.84 (3.38)
Tropisetron 35 (2) 7.88 (0.45)
Dolasetron 33 (3) 7.43 (0.68)
Palonosetron 14 (3) 3.15 (0.68)
Ramosetron 10 (1) 2.25 (0.23)
Comparator antiemetics
Butyrophenone 72 16.22
Benzamide 72 16.22
Dexamethasone 40 9.01
Phenothiazine 13 2.93
Antihistamine 11 2.48
NK-1 5 1.13
Anticholinergic 2 0.45
Serotonin antagonists given with other antiemetic
Serotonin antagonist + dexamethasone 70 15.77
Serotonin antagonist + butyrophenone 15 3.38
Serotonin antagonist + benzamide 5 1.13
Serotonin antagonist + antihistamine 3 0.68
Serotonin antagonist + NK-1 2 0.45
Serotonin antagonist + phenothiazine 2 0.45
Placebo or no treatment   
  293 65.99
Outcomes examined: frequency ****   
Vomiting 347 78.15
Nausea 308 69.40
PONV 268 60.36
Setting  
Not reported 270 60.81
Hospital 113 25.45
Multi-center 31 6.98
Medical center 30 6.76
  1. * Includes unpublished data; ** Duration is in hours unless otherwise noted; *** Multiple interventions and comparators examined across the studies; **** Multiple interventions and outcomes reported per study
  2. NK-1 neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, PONV postoperative nausea and vomiting