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Table 1 Description of the 38 identified clinical research questions in orthopaedics

From: Feasibility of individual patient data meta-analyses in orthopaedic surgery

Anatomic area Pathology Intervention Comparator Primary outcomes
Shoulder Rotator cuff tears Arthroscopic double-row repair Arthroscopic single-row repair Function
Midshaft clavicular fractures Surgical treatment Non-operative treatment Function
Proximal humeral fractures in older patients Surgical treatment Non-operative treatment Function
Osteoarthritis Total shoulder arthroplasty Shoulder hemiarthroplasty Function
Arm Humeral shaft fracture Intramedullary nail Internal fixation with plate Function
Elbow Supracondylar fractures in children Lateral pin fixation Crossed pin fixation Function, iatrogenic ulnar nerve injury
Wrist Distal radial fractures Anterior ORIF External fixation Function, radiographic consolidation
Distal radial fractures Anterior ORIF Posterior ORIF Function, radiographic consolidation
Hip Osteoarthritis Minimally invasive approach Standard approach Function, revision rate
Osteoarthritis No wound drainage after THA Wound drainage after THA Function, wound infection, wound haematoma
Osteoarthritis Navigated THA Conventional arthroplasty Function, revision rate, dislocation
Intracapsular fractures Uncemented hemiarthroplasty Cemented hemiarthroplasty Mortality, function, pain at 1 year, revision rate
Osteoarthritis Uncemented THA Cemented THA Function, revision rate
Hip and knee Osteoarthritis Antibiotic impregnated cement Non-antibiotic-impregnated cement Postoperative infection rate
Knee Osteoarthritis TKA, minimally invasive approach Standard approach for TKA Function
Osteoarthritis Mobile-bearing TKA Fixed-bearing TKA Function, reoperation rate
Osteoarthritis TKA without tourniquet TKA under tourniquet Function, total blood loss
Osteoarthritis Drainage clamping after TKA TKA conventional drainage Hb loss, transfusion, function
Osteoarthritis No patellar resurfacing in TKA Patellar resurfacing in TKA Function, reoperation rate, anterior knee pain
Osteoarthritis PCL-retaining TKA Posterior-stabilized TKA Function, reoperation rate
Osteoarthritis TKA electrocautery of patella No electrocautery of patella Function, reoperation rate, anterior knee pain
Osteoarthritis Gender-specific TKA Unisex TKA Function, reoperation rate, pain,
Osteoarthritis Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty Tibial osteotomy Function, reoperation rate
ACL tears Double-bundle ACL reconstruction Single-bundle ACL reconstruction Function, reoperation rate
ACL tears Early ACL reconstruction Delayed ACL reconstruction Function, reoperation rate
ACL tears Allograft ACL reconstruction Autograft ACL reconstruction Function, reoperation rate
Arthroscopic procedures Arthroscopic procedures without tourniquet Arthroscopic procedures using tourniquet Function
Leg Distal tibial shaft fractures Intramedullary nailing Internal fixation with plate Function, nonunion and malunion rate
Tibial shaft fractures Reamed intramedullary nailing Unreamed intramedullary nailing Function, nonunion and malunion rate
Ankle Acute Achilles tendon rupture Early weight bearing Delayed weight bearing Function, rerupture rate
Ankle fractures Surgical treatment, biodegradable implants Surgical treatment, conventional implants Function, nonunion and malunion rate
Foot Calcaneal fractures Surgical treatment Non-operative treatment Function, chronic pain
Spine Cervical disc disease Cervical disc arthroplasty Cervical interbody fusion Function, pain
Osteoporotic vertebral fractures Percutaneous vertebroplasty Conservative treatment Function, pain, quality of life
Osteoporotic vertebral fractures Bilateral pedicular kyphoplasty Unilateral pedicular kyphoplasty Function, pain, quality of life
Lumbar disc disease Lumbar disc arthroplasty Lumbar interbody fusion Function, pain
Thoracolumbar burst fractures Fracture fixation associated to fusion Fracture fixation alone Function, pain, quality of life
Thoracolumbar burst fractures Surgical treatment Conservative treatment Function, pain, quality of life
  1. ACL: Anterior cruciate ligament; Hb: Haemoglobin; ORIF: Open reduction and internal fixation; PCL: Posterior cruciate ligament; THA: Total hip arthroplasty; TKA: Total knee arthroplasty