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Table 5 Effect of diabetes (DM) on rate of tuberculosis, modification by consultation rate, consultation number, age, time since diagnosis of diabetes and ethnicity

From: Risk of tuberculosis in patients with diabetes: population based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

Strata Exposure status TB cases/PYa Unadjusted rate Unadjusted rate ratio Adjusted rate ratiob P-value for interactionc
(95 % CI) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Consultation rated       
1st tertile DM 5/0.93 5.35 (2.23–12.86) 0.91 (0.37–2.22) 1.80 (0.64–5.01)  
  Non-DM 141/23.94 5.89 (4.99–6.95) 1.0 1.0  
2nd tertile DM 39/4.61 8.46 (6.18–11.59) 0.65 (0.46–0.91) 1.01 (0.63–1.62) 0.535
  Non-DM 273/20.92 13.05 (11.59–14.69) 1.0 1.0  
3rd tertile DM 146/6.19 23.60 (20.01–27.76) 0.83 (0.68–1.00) 0.94 (0.69–1.27)  
  Non-DM 265/12.81 28.50 (25.72–31.57) 1.0 1.0  
Consultation numbere       
1st tertile DM 48/0.35 138.41 (104.31–183.67) 5.14 (3.78–7.00) 2.99 (1.68–5.31)  
  Non-DM 254/9.43 26.93 (23.82–30.46) 1.0 1.0  
2nd tertile DM 70/1.97 35.61 (28.17–45.01) 2.42 (1.86–3.14) 2.88 (1.96–4.24) 0.003
  Non-DM 285/19.37 14.71 (13.10–16.53) 1.0 1.0  
3rd tertile DM 72/9.42 7.65 (6.07–9.63) 0.92 (0.71–1.20) 1.26 (0.87–1.83)  
  Non-DM 240/28.87 8.31 (7.32–9.43) 1.0 1.0  
Age in years       
0- < 45 DM 10/1.10 9.07 (4.88–16.86) 1.23 (0.61–2.45) 0.97 (0.32–2.93)  
  Non-DM 41/5.54 7.40 (5.45–10.04) 1.0 1.0  
45- < 70 DM 103/6.11 16.85 (13.89–20.45) 1.71 (1.37–2.14) 1.62 (1.14–2.31) 0.228
  Non-DM 295/29.93 9.86 (8.79–11.05) 1.0 1.0  
70+ DM 77/4.51 17.0 (13.64–21.32) 0.85 (0.67–1.09) 1.08 (0.76–1.55)  
  Non-DM 443/22.20 19.95 (18.18–21.90) 1.0 1.0  
Time since index date       
0- < 1 years DM 56/2.07 27.07 (20.83–35.17) 1.83 (1.35–2.48) 1.48 (0.86–2.56)  
  Non-DM 165/11.16 14.78 (12.69–17.22) 1.0 1.0  
1- < 5 years DM 80/5.72 13.99 (11.24–17.41) 0.99 (0.78–1.26) 1.24 (0.88–1.74) 0.375
  Non-DM 407/28.81 14.13 (12.82–15.57) 1.0 1.0  
5- < 10 years DM 41/3.08 13.32 (9.80–18.08) 1.05 (0.75–1.48) 1.13 (0.68–1.87)  
  Non-DM 177/14.01 12.64 (10.91–14.64) 1.0 1.0  
10+ years DM 13/0.86 15.11 (8.77–26.02) 1.86 (0.97–3.57) 2.66 (1.12–6.35)  
  Non-DM 30/3.70 8.11 (5.67–11.61) 1.0 1.0  
Ethnicity       
White DM 74/6.74 10.98 (8.74–13.79) 0.88 (0.69–1.13) 1.27 (0.95–1.69)  
  Non-DM 380/30.57 12.43 (11.24–13.75) 1.0 1.0  
South Asian DM 38/0.27 139.40 (101.43–191.58) 1.39 (0.91–2.12) 1.34 (0.79–2.28) 0.894
  Non-DM 49/0.49 100.58 (76.02–133.08) 1.0 1.0  
Black, Mixed or Other DM 5/0.20 24.41 (10.16–58.65) 0.57 (0.22–1.49) 1.65 (0.55–4.93)  
  Non-DM 26/0.61 42.74 (29.10–62.77) 1.0 1.0  
  1. aPY: 100,000 person years at risk
  2. bModel adjusted for: age, ethnicity, BMI, alcohol status, smoking and IMD
  3. cP-value from likelihood ratio test
  4. dConsultation rate defined as number of face to face consultations per year of follow-up; tertiles in order of increasing consultation rate
  5. eConsultation number defined as total number of face to face consultations during patient follow-up; tertiles in order of increasing number of consultations
  6. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, IMD index of multiple deprivation, TB tuberculosis