Skip to main content

Table 6 Comparison of rates of tuberculosis in 216,545 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) categorised by health care utilisation with a matched unexposed cohort

From: Risk of tuberculosis in patients with diabetes: population based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Age adjusted   Fully adjusted modela  
Exposure group Number of patients TB cases/PYb Ratec (95 % CI) Rate ratio Rate ratio P-value*
(% of T2DM) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Patients without diabetes 1,186,844 764/55.87 13.67 (12.74–14.68) 1.00 1.00  
Patients with T2DM       
Cholesterol testing rate:       
Less than once per year 89,989 (41.6) 116/4.42 26.23 (21.87–31.46) 1.91 (1.58–2.33) 1.78 (1.29–2.44) <0.001
Once per year 88,961 (41.1) 44/5.52 7.97 (5.93–10.71) 0.58 (0.43–0.79) 0.76 (0.50–1.14)  
Twice or more per year 37,595 (17.3) 29/1.44 20.16 (14.01–29.01) 1.47 (1.02–2.14) 1.98 (1.20–3.27)  
Blood pressure testing rate:       
Up to once per year 41,839 (19.3) 55/1.94 28.30 (21.73–36.86) 2.34 (1.78–3.07) 2.49 (1.59–3.92) <0.001
Once to twice per year 55,983 (25.9) 27/3.36 8.03 (5.51–11.72) 0.60 (0.41–0.88) 0.67 (0.38–1.18)  
More than twice per year 118,723 (54.8) 108/6.42 16.81 (13.92–20.30) 1.23 (1.00–1.50) 1.34 (0.99–1.81)  
Influenza vaccination rate:       
Less than once per year 57,257 (26.4) 84/2.35 35.62 (28.76–44.11) 2.61 (2.08–3.26) 2.91 (2.00–4.23) <0.001
Once per year 159,288 (73.6) 105/9.02 11.64 (9.61–14.09) 0.85 (0.69–1.04) 0.98 (0.73–1.32)  
  1. *P-value from likelihood ratio test
  2. aModel adjusted for: age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol status, ethnicity and IMD
  3. bPY: 100,000 person years at risk
  4. cRate: per 100,000 person years
  5. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, IMD index of multiple deprivation, TB tuberculosis