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Table 7 Comparing rates of tuberculosis in 216,545 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by time-dependent treatment group with a matched unexposed cohort

From: Risk of tuberculosis in patients with diabetes: population based cohort study using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    Crude   Fully adjusted modela  
Exposure group Number of patients TB cases/PYb Ratec (95 % CI) Rate ratio Rate ratio P-value*
(% of T2DM) (95 % CI) (95 % CI)
Patients without diabetes 1,186,932 765/55.87 13.69 (12.76–14.70) 1.00 1.00  
Patients with T2DM:       
Without insulin exposure 190,865 (88.1) 161/10.05 16.02 (13.72–18.69) 1.16 (0.98–1.37) 1.27 (0.98–1.66) 0.119
During insulin exposure 25,680 (11.9) 28/1.33 21.07 (14.55–30.51) 1.63 (1.12–2.38) 1.49 (0.83–2.67)  
  1. *P-value from likelihood ratio test
  2. aModel adjusted for: age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol status, ethnicity and IMD
  3. bPY: 100,000 person years at risk
  4. c Rate: per 100,000 person years
  5. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, IMD index of multiple deprivation, TB tuberculosis