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Table 3 The role for different vaccine approaches in preventing malaria infection, disease, and transmission

From: Malaria eradication and elimination: views on how to translate a vision into reality

Vaccine objective Vaccine targets
  Pre-erythrocytic Blood-stage Gametocytes and mosquito stages Combined Pre-E and BSV Combined: All stages
Protection against infection ++a +b c +++ +++
Protection against disease ++ ++ - +++ +++
Reduce transmission ++ ?d ++ ++ +++
  1. Legend to scoring : +, weak effect; ++ modest effect; +++, strong effect
  2. aPre-erythrocytic vaccines have shown significant efficacy against symptomatic malaria and infection, but it has proved to be difficult to achieve a strong degree of protection against infection
  3. bBlood-stage vaccines primarily aim to prevent clinical illness and have generally only been weakly protective, on their own, against infection per se
  4. cTransmission-blocking vaccines do not directly protect individuals from infection or disease
  5. dBlood-stage vaccines may reduce transmission because they reduce parasite density [80], but this remains to be quantified
  6. Abbreviations: Pre-E pre-erythrocytic, BSV blood-stage vaccines