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Table 3 Crude and multivariable logistic regression of factors associated with past-year fall-related injury, adults aged 50 years and over, pooled countries, SAGE Wave 1, 2007–2010

From: Prevalence, risk factors and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low- and middle-incomecountries: results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

  Crude models Multivariable model
Risk factor variables Odds ratio 95 % CI P-value Odds ratio 95 % CI P-value
Sex (reference: males)       
 Female 1.73 1.43,2.10 P<0.0001 1.27 0.99,1.62 0.057
Age group (reference: 50–59 years)       
 60–69 1.39 1.10,1.76 0.006 1.10 0.87,1.38 0.430
 70–79 1.76 1.37,2.26 P<0.0001 1.23 0.98,1.54 0.079
 80+ 1.76 1.24,2.52 0.002 1.14 0.76,1.71 0.520
Residence (reference: urban)       
 Rural 1.64 1.32,2.03 P<0.0001 1.36 1.06,1.75 0.017
Symptom-based depression (reference: no)       
 Yes 3.62 2.87,4.56 P<0.0001 1.43 1.01,2.02 0.041
Chronic conditions (reference: none)       
 One 2.03 1.71,2.41 P<0.0001 1.62 1.35,1.95 P<0.0001
 Two or more 3.56 2.74,4.62 P<0.0001 2.15 1.45,3.19 P<0.0001
Cataracts (reference: no)       
 Yes 1.93 1.55,2.40 P<0.0001 1.20 0.93,1.55 0.155
Sleep (reference: no problems sleeping)       
 Severe or extreme problems sleeping 3.16 2.53,4.0 P<0.0001 1.54 1.15,2.08 0.004
Grip strength (average one unit change) 0.64 0.56,0.73 P<0.0001 0.87 0.75,1.00 0.056
Cognition (average one unit change) 0.78 0.73,0.89 P<0.0001 0.85 0.75,0.96 0.012
Water (reference: inside the home)       
 Outside the home 2.05 1.69,2.49 P<0.0001 1.23 0.93,1.63 0.155
Flooring (reference: hard floor)       
 Earth floor 2.09 1.67,2.61 P<0.0001 1.09 0.82,1.45 0.566
Country (reference: China)       
 Ghana 0.83 0.64,1.07 0.146 0.54 0.39,0.74 P<0.0001
 India 2.23 1.84,2.70 P<0.0001 1.01 0.78,1.30 0.962
 Mexico 0.90 0.59,1.39 0.642 0.66 0.37,1.18 0.159
 Russian Federation 0.81 0.54,1.20 0.293 0.70 0.44,1.12 0.139
 South Africa 0.28 0.13,0.60 0.001 0.28 0.12,0.65 0.003
  1. Pooled country weights applied. Multivariable model: VIF=1.019. LR chi-square (19)=483.18. Prob > chi-square=0.0000. Pseudo R-squared=0.0578