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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards estimates demonstrating hazard of time to clinic return (A) and time to ART initiation (B)

From: A combination SMS and transportation reimbursement intervention to improve HIV care following abnormal CD4 test results in rural Uganda: a prospective observational cohort study

A. Outcome: Time to return to clinic after an abnormal CD4+ T-lymphocyte result
  Univariable estimate Multivariable estimate
Characteristic HR (95 %CI) P-value AHR (95 %CI) P-value
Age (each year) 0.99 (0.98 – 1.01) 0.435 1.02 (1.00 – 1.03) 0.043
Female gender 0.98 (0.73 – 1.32) 0.885 0.94 (0.68 – 1.28) 0.673
Educational attainment (Ref: primary or less) 1.13 (0.84 – 1.54) 0.419 1.00 (0.73 – 1.38) 0.994
Mbarara district resident 1.17 (0.86 – 1.59) 0.323 1.33 (0.96 – 1.85) 0.082
ART-naïve 1.56 (1.10 – 2.21) 0.011 1.48 (1.00 – 2.19) 0.051
CD4 result (each 100 cells) 0.87 (0.75 – 1.01) 0.062 0.80 (0.69 – 0.93) 0.004
Study period     
 Control (no message) REF -- REF --
 Intervention (any message) 2.17 (1.53 – 3.09) <0.001 2.32 (1.53 – 3.51) <0.001
Study group     
 Control (no message) REF -- REF --
 Direct SMS message 2.73 (1.74 – 4.26) <0.001 3.05 (1.73 – 5.35) <0.001
 PIN SMS message 1.71 (1.12 – 2.61) 0.013 2.03 (1.20 – 3.45) 0.009
 Coded SMS message 3.98 (2.38 – 6.65) <0.001 3.28 (1.85 – 5.65) <0.001
B. Outcome: Time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy after an abnormal CD4+ T-lymphocyte result
  Univariable estimate Multivariable estimate
Characteristic HR (95 %CI) P-value AHR (95 %CI) P-value
Age (each year) 1.00 (0.98 – 1.02) 0.968 1.02 (1.00 – 1.04) 0.067
Female gender 0.99 (0.70 – 1.40) 0.956 1.12 (0.77 – 1.63) 0.543
Educational attainment (Ref: primary or less) 0.78 (0.55 – 1.11) 0.169 0.71 (0.49 – 1.03) 0.073
Mbarara district resident 0.92 (0.65 – 1.32) 0.664 0.98 (0.68 – 1.44) 0.946
CD4 result (each 100 cells) 0.70 (0.59 – 0.83) <0.001 0.69 (0.58 – 0.82) <0.001
Study period     
 Control (no message) REF    
 Intervention (any message) 2.21 (1.40 – 3.47) 0.001 2.27 (1.38 – 3.72) 0.001
Study group     
 Control (no message) REF    
 Direct SMS message 2.24 (1.31 – 3.84) 0.003 2.40 (1.27 – 4.54) 0.007
 PIN SMS message 1.91 (1.11 – 3.27) 0.018 2.36 (1.21 – 4.61) 0.011
 Coded SMS message 3.54 (1.94 – 6.47) <0.001 3.06 (1.61 – 5.84) 0.001