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Table 2 Prevalence of any morbidity, multimorbidity, and four health outcome measures by background characteristics, WHO-SAGE Wave 1 (2007/10)

From: The impact of multimorbidity on adult physical and mental health in low- and middle-income countries: what does the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) reveal?

Background variables Any morbidity, % (95 % CI) Multimorbidity, % (95 % CI) 1+ ADL, % (95 % CI) Depression, % (95 % CI) Poor self-rated health, % (95 % CI) Mean WHOQoL score (95 % CI)
Age group       
18–49 43.8 (41.9–45.7) 12.3 (11.3–13.5) 9.1 (8.2–10.0) 4.9 (4.2–5.7) 7.4 (6.5–8.5) 55.4 (54.9–55.9)
50–59 73.5 (71.7–75.2) 34.8 (33.1–36.4) 16.8 (15.5–18.3) 6.4 (5.1–7.9) 16.2 (15.0–17.5) 53.3 (52.8–53.8)
60–69 83.5 (82.1–84.8) 50.1 (48.5–51.7) 27.7 (25.9–29.6) 8.2 (7.2–9.3) 22.3 (20.6–24.1) 51.5 (50.8–52.3)
70+ 87.7 (85.8–89.4) 60.7 (58.4–62.9) 44 (41.7–46.4) 9.6 (8.4–10.9) 33.6 (31.6–35.6) 49.2 (48.4–50.0)
Sex       
Male 53.3 (51.1–55.5) 19.0 (17.7–20.3) 10.1 (9.1–11.2) 4.7 (4.0–5.6) 10.1 (9.1–11.3) 55.1 (54.6–55.7)
Female 55.2 (53.3–57.0) 24.8 (23.5–26.2) 18 (16.8–19.2) 6.7 (5.9–7.5) 13.1 (12.2–14.1) 53.7 (53.1–54.2)
Residence       
Urban 51.3 (48.7–54.0) 20.5 (18.8–22.4) 10.0 (8.7–11.4) 5.0 (3.9–6.4) 8.4 (7.5–9.4) 55.5 (54.7–56.2)
Rural 56.6 (54.8–58.4) 22.9 (21.9–24.1) 17.2 (16.2–18.3) 6.2 (5.6–7.0) 14.2 (13.1–15.3) 53.5 (53.0–54.1)
Years of schooling       
No schooling 66.0 (63.7–68.2) 35.2 (33.2–37.3) 33.6 (31.4–35.9) 12.0 (10.6–13.5) 18.6 (17.2–20.1) 51.0 (50.1–51.9)
1–5 years 63.0 (60.3–65.6) 28.0 (25.6–30.6) 18.7 (16.5–21.1) 5.8 (4.7–7.2) 18.6 (16.2–21.2) 51.7 (50.9–52.5)
6–9 years 52.3 (49.8–54.8) 17.5 (16.0–19.0) 8.7 (7.6–9.9) 4.3 (3.5–5.4) 10.6 (9.2–12.2) 54.3 (53.7–54.9)
10+ years 45.3 (42.3–48.4) 16.0 (14.0–18.3) 6.3 (5.5–7.2) 3.7 (2.9–4.6) 5.2 (4.4–6.2) 57.5 (56.8–58.3)
Wealth quintile       
Lowest 59.4 (56.7–62.0) 28.2 (25.9–30.7) 24.2 (21.7–26.9) 8.5 (7.0–10.2) 19.4 (17.3–21.6) 48.0 (47.2–48.8)
Second 57 (53.9–60.1) 23.6 (21.6–25.6) 18.5 (16.5–20.6) 6.7 (5.6–8.0) 15 (13.3–16.8) 52.1 (51.4–52.8)
Middle 55.7 (51.8–59.6) 22.0 (19.9–24.3) 14.3 (12.8–16.0) 6.5 (5.4–7.8) 13.9 (12.3–15.6) 53.7 (53.0–54.5)
Fourth 56.9 (53.4–60.4) 21.9 (19.9–24.0) 11.1 (9.8–12.6) 5.2 (4.0–6.7) 10.2 (8.7–12.0) 55.6 (54.8–56.4)
Highest 46.7 (43.8–49.6) 17.3 (15.3–19.4) 7.6 (6.6–8.7) 3.5 (2.8–4.3) 4.9 (4.0–6.0) 58.7 (58.0–59.4)
Country       
China 55 (52.5–57.4) 20.3 (19.1–21.7) 5.6 (4.9–6.2) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 12.5 (11.4–13.6) 54.9 (54.2–55.6)
Ghana 62.1 (58.6–65.4) 22.0 (19.3–25.1) 16.7 (14.7–18.9) 5.2 (4.0–6.7) 8.9 (7.4–10.8) 52.3 (51.4–53.1)
India 51.6 (49.8–53.4) 22.0 (20.5–23.5) 26.2 (24.6–27.9) 11.6 (10.1–13.2) 10.9 (9.8–12.1) 53.7 (53.1–54.4)
Mexico 52.7 (45.2–60.0) 22.1 (18.2–26.4) 19.0 (14.6–24.4) 9.3 (6.5–13.1) 6.9 (4.6–10.2) 55.3 (53.8–56.9)
Russia 59.7 (51.6–67.3) 34.7 (27.4–42.8) 11.6 (9.4–14.1) 4.9 (3.6–6.7) 11.3 (8.6–14.7) 53.5 (52.2–54.9)
South Africa 69.4 (62.2–75.8) 22.5 (18.2–27.4) 19.4 (14.9–24.9) 5.0 (2.5–9.9) 9.7 (7.0–13.3) 53.8 (51.7–55.8)
Number of diseases       
0 7.1 (6.2–8.1) 3.2 (2.5–4.0) 5.8 (4.9–7.0) 57.0 (56.3–57.6)
1 11.6 (10.6–12.6) 4.7 (3.9–5.7) 10.1 (8.9–11.4) 54.3 (53.7–54.9)
2 25.0 (22.6–27.4) 9.8 (8.2–11.6) 18.7 (16.8–20.7) 51.0 (50.2–51.8)
3 37.1 (33.5–40.8) 12.3 (10.1–14.9) 33.5 (30.2–36.9) 47.0 (45.9–48.0)
4+ 58.7 (53.4–63.8) 27.0 (22.1–32.4) 50.0 (45.2–54.7) 43.3 (42.0–44.6)
Total 54.2 (52.7–55.8) 21.9 (20.9–22.9) 14.0 (13.2–14.8) 5.7 (5.0–6.4) 11.6 (10.9–12.4) 54.4 (53.9–54.9)
  1. Percentage estimates are weighted by the pooled country weight. Higher WHOQoL score indicates better quality of life (on a scale of 0 to 100)