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Table 3 Multilevel multinomial logit model estimates examining the correlates of multimorbidity

From: The impact of multimorbidity on adult physical and mental health in low- and middle-income countries: what does the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) reveal?

Variable One disease versus no disease (95 % CI) Multimorbidity versus no disease (95 % CI)
Age   
 18–49 R   
 50–59 2.50*** (2.31–2.7) 5.10*** (4.68–5.58)
 60–69 3.37*** (3.09–3.71) 10.75*** (9.73–11.85)
 70+ 4.04*** (3.58–4.52) 17.96*** (15.90–20.22)
Sex   
 Male R   
 Female 1.04 (0.98–1.12) 1.26*** (1.17–1.35)
Residence   
 Urban R   
 Rural 1.04 (0.97–1.11) 0.95* (0.88–1.01)
Marital status   
 Never married R   
 Currently married/cohabiting 1.53*** (1.37–1.72) 1.59*** (1.41–1.77)
 Widowed/divorced 1.74*** (1.54–2.03) 1.95*** (1.71–2.18)
Years of schooling   
 No formal schooling R   
 1–5 years 0.96 (0.87–1.05) 0.92** (0.83–1.00)
 6–9 years 0.79*** (0.72–0.86) 0.71*** (0.64–0.77)
 10+ years 0.71*** (0.64–0.77) 0.53*** (0.48–0.59)
Wealth quintile   
 Lowest R   
 Lower 1.06 (0.95–1.16) 1.02 (0.91–1.12)
 Middle 1.12** (1.01–1.22) 1.04 (0.94–1.14)
 Higher 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 0.92* (0.83–1.02)
 Highest 1.02 (0.92–1.13) 0.87*** (0.77–0.96)
Waist-hip ratio   
 High risk 1.12*** (1.05–1.19) 1.34*** (1.26–1.43)
 Low risk R   
Body mass index   
 Obese 1.58*** (1.39–1.76) 2.26*** (2–2.52)
 Not obese R   
Physical activity   
 Active R   
 Inactive 1.02 (0.95–1.1) 1.14*** (1.07–1.23)
Daily tobacco consumption   
 No R   
 Yes 1.00 (0.93–1.08) 1.00 (0.93–1.09)
Alcohol consumption   
 No R   
 Yes 1.14*** (1.04–1.27) 1.12** (1.01–1.24)
Random part   
 Country level variance   
 Variance (cons_1) 0.08 (0.02–0.27)
 Covariance (cons_1,cons_2) 0.04 (−0.09 to 0.28)
 Variance (cons_2) 0.25 (0.06–0.85)
 Province level variance   
 Variance (cons_1) 0.12 (0.07–0.19)
 Covariance (cons_1,cons_2) 0.19 (0.12–0.3)
 Variance (cons_2) 0.36 (0.24–0.54)
  1. R Reference category. * P <0.1, ** P <0.05, *** P <0.01. Estimates are obtained through MCMC algorithm available in MLWin