Skip to main content

Table 4 Multilevel logit model estimates for the effects of disease count on the four health outcome measures, WHO SAGE Wave 1 (2007/10)

From: The impact of multimorbidity on adult physical and mental health in low- and middle-income countries: what does the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) reveal?

Number of chronic diseases 1+ ADL Depression Poor self-rated health Mean WHOQoL score
Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Unadjusted OR (95 % CI) Adjusted OR (95 % CI) Unadjusted beta (95 % CI) Adjusted beta (95 % CI)
No diseaseR         
1 disease 2.07*** 1.51*** 1.77*** 1.62*** 1.90*** 1.50*** −4.26*** −1.28***
(1.93–2.22) (1.38–1.65) (1.57–2.01) (1.42–1.84) (1.74–2.08) (1.35–1.65) (−4.58 to –3.94) (−1.59 to –0.98)
2 diseases 4.08*** 2.47*** 2.80*** 2.44*** 3.38*** 2.25*** −7.38*** −3.11***
(3.78–4.39) (2.26–2.72) (2.48–3.18) (2.14–2.82) (3.09–3.69) (2.03–2.5) (−7.73 to –7.03) (−3.46 to –2.77)
3 diseases 7.28*** 3.81*** 4.74*** 4.05*** 6.33*** 4.03*** −10.74*** −5.79***
(6.66–7.92) (3.42–4.26) (4.12–5.46) (3.47–4.75) (5.71–6.98) (3.59–4.5) (−11.19 to –10.28) (−6.23 to –5.35)
4+ diseases 15.18*** 7.21*** 8.75*** 7.33*** 12.3*** 7.38*** −14.6*** −8.93***
(13.58–16.83) (6.33–8.17) (7.53–10.12) (6.24–8.61) (10.99–13.71) (6.43–8.38) (−15.16 to –14.03) (−9.48 to –8.38)
Random part         
Country 0.69 1.24 0.73 0.73 0.16 0.30 7.41 5.99
(0.17–2.36) (0.3–4.24) (0.16–2.52) (0.16–2.52) (0.03–0.55) (0.07–0.97) (−1.93–16.76) (−1.24–13.22)
Province/state 0.24 0.30 0.43 0.43 0.17 0.21 8.57 3.99
(0.16–0.35) (0.21–0.44) (0.28–0.64) (0.28–0.64) (0.11–0.24) (0.14–0.3) (5.68–11.46) (2.49–5.49)
Individual na na na na na na 163.83 (161.6–166.0) 120.68 (118.9–122.4)
  1. * P <0.1, ** P <0.05, *** P <0.01. Adjusted ORs/beta coefficients are controlled for the effects of background characteristics and health risk factors. na, not applicable. Estimates are obtained through MCMC algorithm available in MLWin