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Table 5 Multi-level regression estimates showing the effects of combinations of chronic diseases on the four health outcome measures, WHO SAGE Wave 1 (2007/10)

From: The impact of multimorbidity on adult physical and mental health in low- and middle-income countries: what does the study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) reveal?

  1+ ADL   Depression   Poor self-rated health   WHOQoL score  
  OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI) Beta coefficient (95 % CI)
  Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2 Model 1 Model 2
Main effects         
Angina 2.15*** 2.74*** 1.98*** 2.89*** 2.15*** 2.66*** −3.49*** −3.79***
(1.96–2.34) (2.35–3.2) (1.76–2.21) (2.32–3.56) (1.97–2.35) (2.25–3.11) (−3.87 to –3.09) (−4.47 to –3.11)
Arthritis 2.15*** 2.75*** 2.06*** 2.54*** 1.84*** 2.28*** −2.96*** −3.69***
(1.99–2.32) (2.43–3.12) (1.85–2.28) (2.13–3.03) (1.7–1.99) (1.98–2.61) (−3.28 to –2.64) (−4.24 to –3.13)
Asthma 1.50*** 1.84*** 1.71*** 2.24*** 1.57*** 1.72*** −2.61*** −3.18***
(1.31–1.72) (1.4–2.39) (1.45–2.00) (1.58–3.07) (1.35–1.79) (1.25–2.29) (−3.2 to –2.02) (−4.35 to –1.99)
Chronic lung disease 2.02*** 2.48*** 2.14*** 2.28*** 2.00*** 2.8*** −2.74*** −3.36***
(1.8–2.25) (2.03–3.04) (1.86–2.44) (1.73–2.98) (1.79–2.22) (2.23–3.42) (−3.21 to –2.26) (−4.35 to –1.99)
Diabetes 1.31*** 1.38** 1.16** 1.51** 1.83*** 2.29*** −2.26*** −3.4***
(1.16–1.47) (1.07–1.76) (0.97–1.35) (1.08–2.06) (1.61–2.07) (1.79–2.88) (−2.77 to –1.74) (−4.35 to –1.99)
Hypertension 1.04 1.05 0.98 1.09 1.05 1.02 0.01 0.02
(0.97–1.11) (0.95–1.16) (0.88–1.08) (0.93–1.26) (0.98–1.13) (0.92–1.15) (−0.25–0.26) (−0.32–0.38)
Low vision 1.28*** 1.33*** 1.23*** 1.25** 1.19*** 1.26*** −0.89*** −0.94***
(1.19–1.36) (1.19–1.47) (1.11–1.35) (1.07–1.45) (1.11–1.28) (1.11–1.43) (−1.15 to –0.62) (−1.15 to –0.62)
Stroke 2.40*** 2.36*** 2.21*** 2.17*** 2.22*** 2.18*** −4.28*** −4.25***
(1.99–2.86) (1.97–2.81) (1.75–2.73) (1.73–2.7) (1.86–2.62) (1.83–2.57) (−5.08 to –3.5) (−5.04 to –3.47)
Two-way interactions         
Arthritis × Angina   0.78***   0.64***   0.79**   0.69**
  (0.65–0.92)   (0.51–0.81)   (0.67–0.93)   (−0.09–1.5)
Arthritis × Chronic lung disease   0.73**   0.84*   0.82**   1.17**
  (0.57–0.9)   (0.64–1.08)   (0.66–1.03)   (0.11–2.2)
Arthritis × Asthma   0.8*   0.83   0.73**   1.34**
  (0.59–1.05)   (0.59–1.14)   (0.54–0.95)   (0.05–2.64)
Arthritis × Low vision   0.82**   0.99   0.95   0.14
  (0.7–0.94)   (0.81–1.22)   (0.82–1.11)   (−0.5–0.78)
Arthritis × Diabetes   0.95   0.88   0.87   1.56**
  (0.73–1.21)   (0.61–1.23)   (0.67–1.1)   (0.39–2.73)
Angina × Chronic lung disease   0.86*   1.17   0.78**   0.72*
  (0.69–1.06)   (0.88–1.52)   (0.63–0.95)   (−0.32–1.75)
Angina × Asthma   0.81*   0.85   0.86   0.71
  (0.6–1.06)   (0.61–1.13)   (0.65–1.1)   (−0.56–1.99)
Angina × Low vision   0.99   1.05   0.90*   −0.43
  (0.83–1.16)   (0.84–1.28)   (0.75–1.05)   (−1.19–0.33)
Angina × Diabetes   0.92   0.79*   0.96   −0.03
  (0.69–1.22)   (0.54–1.11)   (0.73–1.24)   (−1.3–1.23)
Asthma × Low vision   1.04   1.06   1.00   −0.08
  (0.78–1.36)   (0.77–1.45)   (0.76–1.31)   (−1.25–1.15)
Asthma × Diabetes   1.31   1.32   0.65**   1.26
  (0.81–2.02)   (0.77–2.07)   (0.41–0.99)   (−0.79–3.32)
Hypertension × Arthritis   0.96   1.02   0.92   0.28
  (0.83–1.11)   (0.83–1.23)   (0.79–1.06)   (−0.36–0.92)
Hypertension × Angina   0.84**   0.63***   1.03   0.04
  (0.7–0.99)   (0.5–0.79)   (0.87–1.22)   (−0.71–0.78)
Hypertension × Lung disease   0.93   1.05   0.93   −0.10
  (0.75–1.17)   (0.8–1.36)   (0.76–1.15)   (−1.05–0.84)
Hypertension × Asthma   1.02   1.01   1.53***   −1.07**
  (0.77–1.32)   (0.72–1.37)   (1.16–1.99)   (−2.28–0.16)
Hypertension × Low vision   1.06   1.01   1.03   0.02
  (0.93–1.21)   (0.84–1.22)   (0.89–1.19)   (−0.49–0.55)
Hypertension × Diabetes   1.25**   1.11   1.12   −0.37
  (0.98–1.57)   (0.79–1.53)   (0.87–1.41)   (−1.4–0.64)
Low vision × Diabetes   0.74**   0.7**   0.85*   1.73***
  (0.57–0.92)   (0.5–0.95)   (0.66–1.06)   (0.71–2.73)
Chronic lung disease × Asthma   0.86   0.76**   0.90   0.54
  (0.65–1.12)   (0.54–1.02)   (0.68–1.17)   (−0.69–1.77)
Chronic lung disease × Low vision   1.10   0.99   0.92   −0.30
  (0.88–1.35)   (0.76–1.28)   (0.75–1.12)   (−1.26–0.64)
Chronic lung disease × Diabetes   1.05   1.00   0.67**   0.39
  (0.74–1.48)   (0.66–1.45)   (0.47–0.91)   (−1.23–1.97)
Random part         
Country 1.04 0.97 0.80 0.85 0.26 0.25 9.71 10.38
(0.24–3.56) (0.21–3.31) (0.17–2.89) (0.18–3.02) (0.05–0.91) (0.05–0.84) (2.18–34.24) (2.35–35.84)
Province 0.30 0.30 0.41 0.39 0.21 0.21 3.66 3.67
(0.2–0.43) (0.2–0.43) (0.25–0.63) (0.24–0.62) (0.14–0.31) (0.14–0.31) (2.5–5.3) (2.49–5.34)
Individual Na na na na na na 116.5 (114.7–118.4) 116.4 (114.5–118.2)
  1. * P <0.1, ** P <0.05, *** P <0.01. All models control for background characteristics and health risk factors. na, not applicable. Estimates are obtained through MCMC algorithm available in MLWin; there are total 28 pairs of eight diseases, but we excluded seven interactions with stroke due to the small number of observations