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Table 2 Multivariate relative risks of hypertension according to birth weight

From: Joint association between birth weight at term and later life adherence to a healthy lifestyle with risk of hypertension: a prospective cohort study

  Term birth weight categories (kg) P trend
<2.5 2.5–3.15 3.16–3.82 3.83–4.49 ≥4.5
Cases/Person-years (PY) 510/27,436 4,077/248,172 6,330/450,509 1,541/116,911 130/11,597  
Incidence rate (per 105 PY) 1,859 1,643 1,405 1,318 1,121  
Age adjusted RR (95 % CI) 1.28 (1.17–1.40) 1.17 (1.13–1.22) 1.0 (ref.) 0.96 (0.91–1.02) 0.78 (0.66–0.93) <0.0001
Multivariable adjusted * 1.25 (1.14–1.37) 1.17 (1.12–1.21) 1.0 (ref.) 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 0.74 (0.62–0.88) <0.0001
Further adjusted BMI ** 1.29 (1.18–1.41) 1.20 (1.15–1.25) 1.0 (ref.) 0.90 (0.86–0.96) 0.67 (0.56–0.79) <0.0001
  1. Multivariable adjusted relative risk estimated from Cox proportional hazards models
  2. * Adjusted for age, ethnicity (Caucasian, yes/no), family history of hypertension (yes/no), use of oral contraceptive pills (never, past or current), smoking status (never smoker, former smoker, current smoker: 1–14, 15–24 or ≥25 cigarettes/d), alcohol drinking (g/d: 0, 0.1–4.9, 5.0–9.9, 10.0–14.9, 15.0–29.9, and ≥30), exercise (hours/week: 0, 0.01–1.0, 1.0–3.5, 3.5–6.0, ≥6), the DASH score (quintile), supplemental folic acid intake (no, <400, 400–800 or >800 μg/d), use of aspirin or aspirin-containing products, ibuprofen and acetaminophen (each: <1, 1, 2–3, ≥4 days/week)
  3. ** Further adjusted for body mass index (kg/m2: <21, 21–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–31.9, ≥32)
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