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Table 4 Multivariate relative and hypothesized population attributable risks (PARs) of incident hypertension *,**

From: Joint association between birth weight at term and later life adherence to a healthy lifestyle with risk of hypertension: a prospective cohort study

No. of low-risk factors Percentage of population No. of cases of diabetes Relative risk (95 % CI) Population attributable risk
Total NHS II
4: Birth weight 2.5–4.49 kg plus three healthy lifestyles     
 Highest DASH quintile, daily vigorous exercise, and alcohol 0.1–10 g/d 3.93 317 0.72 (0.65–0.81) 27.0 (18.9–34.7)
5: The above four factors plus BMI <25 kg/m2 2.90 156 0.44 (0.37–0.51) 55.5 (48.1–62.0)
6: The above five factors plus non-narcotic analgesic use 1.58 60 0.33 (0.26–0.43) 66.3 (56.9–74.0)
Baseline age <30 years
4: Birth weight 2.5–4.49 kg plus three healthy lifestyles     
 Highest DASH quintile, daily vigorous exercise, and alcohol 0.1–10 g/d 3.45 22 0.64 (0.42–0.98) 35.1 (6.0–58.8)
5: The above four factors plus BMI <25 kg/m2 2.59 6 0.28 (0.14–0.56) 71.4 (45.6–86.2)
6: The above five factors plus nonnarcotic analgesic use 1.58 4 0.24 (0.09–0.63) 76.1 (41.5–91.4)
Baseline age 31–35 years
4: Birth weight 2.5–4.49 kg plus three healthy lifestyles     
 Highest DASH quintile, daily vigorous exercise, and alcohol 0.1–10 g/d 3.81 93 0.79 (0.65–0.97) 20.3 (3.8–35.6)
5: The above four factors plus BMI <25 kg/m2 2.91 44 0.44 (0.33–0.59) 55.5 (41.1–67.3)
6: The above five factors plus nonnarcotic analgesic use 1.64 19 0.36 (0.23–0.56) 63.6 (44.7–77.3)
Baseline age ≥36 years
4: Birth weight 2.5–4.49 kg plus three healthy lifestyles     
 Highest DASH quintile, daily vigorous exercise, and alcohol 0.1–10 g/d 4.18 202 0.70 (0.61–0.81) 29.1 (19.1–38.4)
5: The above four factors plus BMI <25 kg/m2 2.99 104 0.46 (0.38–0.56) 53.5 (44.0–61.8)
6: The above five factors plus nonnarcotic analgesic use 1.54 37 0.34 (0.24–0.46) 66.0 (53.7–75.6)
  1. * Relative risks compared individuals in the low-risk category with the rest of the population; Adjusted for age (in 5-year categories), time periods, presence of a family history of hypertension, ethnicity, use of oral contraceptive pills, supplemental folic acid intake, smoking status, and the lifestyle factors that’s not included in the subgroup categories, the five lifestyle factors included nonnarcotic analgesic use, exercise, DASH score, BMI, and alcohol consumption
  2. ** The population-attributable risk is the percentage of cases of hypertension in the population that would theoretically not have occurred if all individuals had been in the low-risk category for these factors
  3. Analysis stratified by age at baseline