Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence stratified by patient characteristics and the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify one TB case in different risk groups

From: Rapid microbiological screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients on the first day of acute hospital admission by systematic testing of urine samples using Xpert MTB/RIF: a prospective cohort in South Africa

Characteristic Number of TB cases TB prevalence, % (95 % CI) P value NNS (95 % CI)
All patients 139 32.6 (28.1–37.2) - 3.1 (2.7–3.6)
Age (years)
 <35 (n = 199) 75 37.7 (30.8–44.6) 0.034 2.7 (2.2–3.2)
 ≥35 (n = 228) 64 28.1 (22.3–34.4)   3.6 (2.9–4.5)
Gender
 Male (n = 168) 49 29.2 (22.4–36.6) 0.260 3.4 (2.7–4.5)
 Female (n = 259) 90 34.8 (29.0–40.9)   2.9 (2.4–3.4)
HIV diagnosis
 New (n = 82) 34 41.5 (32.1–53.1) 0.055 2.4 (1.9–3.1)
 Existing (n = 345) 105 30.4 (25.0–35.1)   3.3 (2.8–4.0)
Previous history of TB
 No (n = 229) 88 38.4 (32.1–45.1) 0.005 2.6 (2.2–3.1)
 Yes (n = 196) 50 25.5 (19.6–32.2)   3.9 (3.1–5.1)
ART status
 Naive (n = 177) 71 40.1 (32.8–47.7) 0.007 2.5 (2.1–3.0)
 Any ART exposure (n = 250) 68 27.2 (21.8–33.2)   3.7 (3.0–4.6)
CD4 cell count (cells/μL)
 <100 (n = 160) 74 46.3 (38.3–54.3) <0.001 2.2 (1.8–2.6)
 100–199 (n = 95) 35 36.8 (27.2–47.4)   2.7 (2.1–3.7)
 ≥200 (n = 169) 29 17.2 (11.8–23.7)   5.8 (4.2–8.5)
WHO anaemia grade
 No/mild anaemia (n = 144) 28 19.4 (13.3–26.9) <0.001 5.2 (3.7–7.5)
 Moderate/severe anaemia (n = 277) 111 40.0 (34.3–46.1)   2.5 (2.2–2.9)
Sputum production
 No (n = 259) 85 32.8 (27.1–38.9) 0.814 3.0 (2.6–3.7)
 Yes (n = 161) 51 31.7 (24.6–39.5)   3.2 (2.5–4.1)
Current cough
 No (n = 223) 54 24.2 (18.7–30.4) <0.001 4.1 (3.3–5.3)
 Yes (n = 201) 84 41.8 (34.9–48.9)   2.4 (2.0–2.9)
Cough duration
 <2 weeks (n = 389) 120 30.8 (26.3–35.7) 0.008 3.2 (2.8–3.8)
 ≥2 weeks (n = 34) 18 52.9 (35.1–70.2)   1.9 (1.4–2.8)
Current fever
 No (n = 360) 113 31.4 (26.6–36.5) 0.294 3.2 (2.7–3.8)
 Yes (n = 63) 24 38.1 (26.1–51.2)   2.6 (2.0–3.8)
Current night sweats
 No (n = 250) 65 26.0 (20.7–31.9) 0.001 3.8 (3.1–4.8)
 Yes (n = 174) 73 42.0 (34.5–49.7)   2.4 (2.0–2.9)
Recent weight loss
 No (n = 236) 62 26.3 (20.8–32.4) 0.002 3.8 (3.1–4.8)
 Yes (n = 189) 76 40.2 (33.2–47.6)   2.5 (2.1–3.0)
WHO symptom screen
 Negative (n = 36) 4 11.1 (3.1–26.1) 0.005 9.0 (3.8–32.3)
 Positive (n = 389) 134 34.5 (29.7–39.4)   2.9 (2.5–3.4)