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Table 5 Diagnostic yield of tuberculosis (TB) cases from different sample types and the proportion of diagnoses that could be made using Xpert testing of urine samples

From: Rapid microbiological screening for tuberculosis in HIV-positive patients on the first day of acute hospital admission by systematic testing of urine samples using Xpert MTB/RIF: a prospective cohort in South Africa

Sample Number of TB diagnoses Diagnostic yield, % (95 % CI) Number diagnosed by urine Xpert Proportion diagnosed by urine Xperta, % (95 % CI)
All clinical samples 139 100 (97.4–100) 89 64.0 (55.5–72.0)
Samples collected during the first 24 h of admission
Urine
 Urine Xpert (unconcentrated) 59 42.4 (34.1–51.1) 59 -
 Urine Xpert (concentrated) 82 59.0 (50.3–67.3) 82 -
 Urine Xpert (either sample) 89 64.0 (55.5–72.0) 89 -
Sputum
 Xpert (first sample only) 37 26.6 (19.5–34.8) 20 54.1 (36.9–70.5)
 Xpert (either sample) 39 28.1 (20.8–36.3) 20 51.3 (34.8–67.6)
 Sputum and urine     
 Xpert (all samples) 108 77.7 (69.8–84.3) 89 82.4 (73.9–89.1)
All other samples collected during admission
Sputum
 Xpert 57 41.0 (32.7–49.7) 30 52.6 (39.0–66.0)
 Culture 58 41.7 (33.4–50.4) 33 56.9 (43.2–69.8)
 Either culture or Xpert 75 54.0 (453–62.4) 42 56.0 (44.1–67.5)
Cultures of non-respiratory samples
 All non-respiratory samples 70 50.3 (41.8–58.9) 46 65.7 (53.4–76.7)
 Blood 41 29.5 (22.1–37.8) 32 78.0 (62.4–89.4)
 Pleural fluid 13 9.4 (5.1–15.5) 6 46.2 (19.2–74.9)
 Urine 11 7.9 (4.0–13.7) 8 72.7 (39.0–94.0)
 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 8 5.8 (2.5–11.0) 3 37.5 (8.5–75.5)
 Lymph node fine needle aspirate (FNA) 6 4.3 (1.6–9.2) 4 66.7 (22.2–95.7)
 Other 5 3.6 (1.2–8.2) 4 80.0 (28.4–99.5)
  1. aAny positive result from testing unconcentrated and concentrated samples