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Table 1 Demographic, socioeconomic, and clinical characteristics of the study population (n = 9,513)

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and 12-month mortality associated with cancer in Southeast Asia: results from a longitudinal study in eight countries

Characteristic n %
Age (years)   
 <45 2,780 29
 45–54 2,801 30
 55–64 2,463 26
 ≥65 1,467 15
 Missing 2 <1
Sex   
 Male 3,470 37
 Female 6,043 63
Marital status   
 Married 7,352 77
 Not married 2,154 23
 Missing 7 <1
Level of education   
 0–6 years (primary) 3,693 39
 7–12 years (secondary) 3,817 40
 >12 years (tertiary) 1,992 21
 Missing 11 <1
Country of residence   
 Cambodia 206 2
 Indonesia 2,335 25
 Laos 101 1
 Malaysia 1,662 18
 Myanmar 1,178 12
 Philippines 909 10
 Thailand 1,206 13
 Vietnam 1,916 20
Household size   
 1–2 1,337 14
 3–5 5,555 58
 >5 2,570 27
 Missing 9 <1
Household income (of mean national income)   
 0–25 % 1,103 12
 25–50 % 1,185 13
 50–75 % 1,031 11
 75–100 % 1,020 11
 100–125 % 767 8
 125–150 % 381 4
 150–175 % 427 5
 175–200 % 417 4
 >200 % 1,819 19
 Not known 1,336 14
 Missing 27 <1
Main source of household income   
 Crops and agricultural sidelines 1,965 21
 Family business 1,287 14
 Wages 4,568 48
 Remittances and gifts 455 5
 Other income 1,213 13
 Missing 25 <1
Health insurance status   
 Government-provided insurance 3,061 32
 Employment-based insurance 568 6
 Private insurance 857 9
 Other community insurance 65 <1
 None 5,237 55
 Missing 11 <1
Type of hospital   
 Public 8,760 92
 Private 610 6
 Other (for example, military) 143 2
Experienced economic hardship in the year before diagnosis   
 Yes 5,146 54
 No 4,352 46
 Missing 15 <1
Paid work (patient level) before diagnosis (self-employed or for a wage)   
 Yes 4,512 47
 No 4,992 53
 Missing 9 <1
Cancer site   
 Mouth and pharynx 1,063 11
 Oesophagus 160 2
 Stomach 305 3
 Colon and rectum 910 10
 Liver 83 1
 Pancreas 53 <1
 Trachea, bronchus, and lung 623 7
 Melanoma 40 <1
 Female breast 2,445 26
 Cervix 1,005 11
 Uterus 177 2
 Ovary 242 3
 Prostate 47 <1
 Bladder 60 <1
 Lymphomas and multiple myeloma 454 5
 Leukaemia 371 4
 Other malignant neoplasms 1,295 14
 Missing 179 2
Cancer stage   
 Stage I 590 6
 Stage II 1,613 17
 Stage III 1,696 18
 Stage IV 1,260 13
 None (haematological cancers) 825 9
 Missing 3,529 37