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Table 2 Odds ratios (and 95 % confidence intervals) for financial catastrophe and death, relative to no financial catastrophe (reference) in all participants with complete outcome data (n = 6,787), adjusted for age, sex, cancer stage, and geographic region

From: Catastrophic health expenditure and 12-month mortality associated with cancer in Southeast Asia: results from a longitudinal study in eight countries

Characteristic   Financial catastrophe Death
Age (years) <45 Reference Reference
  45–54 1.05 (0.85–1.30) 1.08 (0.84–1.38)
  55–64 1.41 (1.13–1.75) 1.59 (1.23–2.04)
  ≥65 1.51 (1.17–1.94) 2.64 (2.00–3.49)
Sex Men Reference Reference
  Women 1.14 (0.96–1.36) 0.62 (0.51–0.75)
Highest level of education Tertiary Reference Reference
  Secondary 1.44 (1.16–1.79) 1.43 (1.11–1.85)
  Primary 1.45 (1.16–1.82) 2.50 (1.93–3.25)
Marital status Married Reference Reference
  Unmarried 1.32 (1.09–1.60) 1.42 (1.15–1.77)
Health insurance Yes Reference Reference
  No 1.27 (1.05–1.52) 1.51 (1.21–1.88)
Economic hardship No Reference Reference
  Yes 1.40 (1.19–1.64) 1.82 (1.51–2.20)
Income level High Reference Reference
  Middle 2.15 (1.73–2.67) 1.91 (1.47–2.47)
  Low 5.86 (4.76–7.23) 5.52 (4.34–7.02)
Paid work Yes Reference Reference
  No 1.32 (1.11–1.56) 1.60 (1.31–1.94)
Cancer region: females Digestive/gastrointestinal Reference Reference
  Breast 0.99 (0.69–1.41) 0.45 (0.29–0.69)
  Gynaecological 0.73 (0.49–1.08) 0.69 (0.43–1.11)
  Head and neck 0.69 (0.40–1.19) 0.65 (0.35–1.18)
  Haematological/blood 0.90 (0.69–1.19) 1.93 (1.39–2.69)
  Respiratory/thoracic 1.36 (0.65–2.85) 2.28 (1.07–4.86)
  Other 0.83 (0.48–1.41) 0.99 (0.54–1.83)
Cancer region: males Digestive/gastrointestinal Reference Reference
  Head and neck 0.54 (0.36–0.80) 0.36 (0.24–0.55)
  Haematological/blood 0.56 (0.42–0.76) 1.10 (0.80–1.51)
  Respiratory/thoracic 1.18 (0.67–2.09) 1.88 (1.07–3.31)
  Other 0.56 (0.37–0.86) 0.65 (0.41–1.01)
Cancer stage I Reference Reference
  II 1.23 (0.94–1.60) 0.93 (0.65–1.34)
  III 1.23 (0.94–1.62) 2.34 (1.65–3.33)
  IV 1.52 (1.12–2.05) 5.43 (3.77–7.82)
  None (haematological cancers) 0.68 (0.49–0.95) 3.04 (2.07–4.46)
EQ-5D score (per 0.1 decrement)   1.11 (1.07–1.16) 1.24 (1.18–1.30)