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Table 1 Definition of indicators

From: Benchmarking health system performance across states in Nigeria: a systematic analysis of levels and trends in key maternal and child health interventions and outcomes, 2000–2013

Indicator (abbreviation) Definition Data sources
Maternal and child health indicators   
Antenatal care (ANC1, ANC4) The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the given year and had one/four or more antenatal visits attended by skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife, or clinical officer) at a health facility during the corresponding pregnancy DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
LSS: 2003–2004
CWIQ: 2006
Skilled birth attendance (SBA) The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the given year and delivered with a skilled birth attendant (a doctor, nurse, midwife, or clinical officer) DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
CWIQ: 2006
SMART: 2013
In-facility deliveries (IFD) The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in a given year and delivered at a health facility DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
CWIQ: 2006
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) The proportion of children who were exclusively breastfed during their first six months after birth DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
GHS: 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012
Prevalence of modern contraceptive use The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who reported using a modern method of contraception DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
GHS: 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012
LSS: 2003–2004, 2009–2010
Percentage of women who received two or more doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine during pregnancy The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who received two or more doses of the tetanus toxoid vaccine during their last pregnancy DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
Childhood immunizations   
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunization (BCG) The proportion of children under 5 who were vaccinated against tuberculosis in the given year DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
LSS: 2003–2004, 2009–2010
Diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus immunization, three doses (DPT3) The proportion of children aged 12–59 months old who received three doses of the diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine in the given year DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
LSS: 2003–2004, 2009–2010
Measles immunization (Measles) The proportion of children aged 12–59 months who received measles vaccination in the given year DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
LSS: 2003–2004, 2009–2010
Oral polio vaccine immunization, three doses (OPV3) The proportion of children aged 12–59 months who received three doses of the oral polio vaccine in the given year DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
LSS: 2003–2004, 2009–2010
Malaria interventions   
Intermittent preventive therapy for malaria during pregnancy, two doses (IPTp2) The proportion of women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the given year and received at least two treatment doses of Fansidar (sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) at antenatal care visits during the corresponding pregnancy DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
MIS: 2010
Indicator (abbreviation) Definition Data sources
Malaria interventions   
Household ownership of ITNs (ITN own) The proportion of households that own at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN) DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2011
MIS: 2010
LSS: 2009–2010
Netmark: 2000, 2004, 2008
ITN use by children under 5 (ITN use) The proportion of children under 5 who slept under an ITN the previous night DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
MIS: 2010
LSS: 2009–2010
Netmark: 2000, 2004, 2008
Household ownership of ITNs or receipt of indoor residual spraying (ITN or IRS) The proportion of households that own at least one ITN or were sprayed with an insecticide-based solution in the last 12 months, or both DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2011
MIS: 2010
LSS: 2009–2010
Netmark: 2000, 2004, 2008
Percentage of febrile children under 5 who received ACTs The proportion of children under 5 with a fever in the past two weeks who received artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) as treatment DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 2007, 2011
MIS: 2010
LSS: 2009–2010
Health outcomes   
Under-5 mortality The probability that a child born in the given year will die before reaching the age of 5; expressed in terms of under-5 deaths per 1,000 live births DHS: 1990, 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
MIS: 2010
Percentage of children under 5 who are underweight The proportion of children under 5 who are underweight, as defined by weighing two or more standard deviations below the international anthropometric reference population median of weight for age DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
Prevalence of wasting among children under 5 The proportion of children under 5 who are wasting, as defined by weighing two or more standard deviations below the international anthropometric reference population median of weight for height DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
Prevalence of stunting among children under 5 The proportion of children under 5 who are stunted, as defined by weighing two or more standard deviations below the international anthropometric reference population median of height for age DHS: 2003, 2008, 2013
MICS: 1999, 2007, 2011
  1. CWIQ, Core Wealth Indicator Questionnaire; DHS, Demographic and Health Survey; GHS, General Household Survey; LSS, Living Standards Survey; MICS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey; MIS, Malaria Indicator Survey; Netmark, Netmark Survey; SMART, Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transition