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Table 3 Characteristics of prospective studies included in the meta-analysis of coffee consumption and atrial fibrillation

From: Coffee consumption is not associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation: results from two prospective cohorts and a meta-analysis

First author, year; study name Country Population Follow-up (years) Outcome assessment Number of casesa Category of coffeeb Adjusted RR (95 % CI) Adjustment
Wilhelmsen, 2001 [20]; Multifactor Primary Prevention Study Sweden 7,374 men, 47–55 years of age 27 ECG, hospital records and register (ICD-9 code 427D) 754 0 1.00 Age
1–4 1.24 (1.00–1.54)
≥5 1.09 (0.87–1.38)
Mukamal, 2009 [21]; Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program Sweden 1,369 men and women, 45–70 years of age and who had survived a MI 9.9 Register (ICD-9 code 427D and ICD-10 code I48) 163 0 to <1 1.00 Age, sex, education, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and intake of alcohol, tea and boiled coffee
1 to <3 0.71 (0.42–1.20)
3 to <5 0.61 (0.35–1.04)
5 to <7 0.61 (0.34–1.10)
≥7 0.67 (0.33–1.34)
Conen, 2010 [22]; Women’s Health Study USA 33,638 women ≥45 years of age and free from AF and CVD 14.4 Self-reported and confirmed by medical record review 936 0 1.00 Age, race/ethnicity, treatment group, systolic blood pressure, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, diabetes, BMI, exercise, parental history of myocardial infarction, and intake of alcohol and fish
<1 1.03 (0.87–1.21)
1 0.93 (0.71–1.21)
2–3 1.36 (1.12–1.65)
≥4 1.03 (0.79–1.35)
Klatsky, 2011 [23]; California Comprehensive Health Care Plan USA 130,054 men and women; age NA 17.6 Register (ICD-9 code 427.31) 1,512 0 1.00 Age, sex, ethnicity, BMI, education, cigarette smoking, a cardiorespiratory composite covariate, and alcohol intake
<1 0.82 (0.67–1.00)
1–3 0.88 (0.76–1.01)
≥4 0.81 (0.69–0.96)
Larsson, 2015; Cohort of Swedish Men (current study) Sweden 41,881 men, 45–79 years of age and free from AF 12 Register (ICD-10 code I48) 4,311 <2 1.00 Age, education, smoking, histories of cardiac disease, hypertension and diabetes, BMI, walking/bicycling, family history of MI, and intake of alcohol and tea
2 to <3 0.99 (0.90–1.09)
3 to <4 0.99 (0.89–1.09)
4 to <5 0.97 (0.87–1.07)
≥5 1.08 (0.98–1.20)
Larsson, 2015; Swedish Mammography Cohort (current study) Sweden 34,594 women, 49–83 years of age and free from AF 12 Register (ICD-10 code I48) 2,730 <2 1.00 Age, education, smoking, histories of cardiac disease, hypertension and diabetes, BMI, walking/bicycling, family history of MI, and intake of alcohol and tea
2 to <3 0.95 (0.85–1.07)
3 to <4 0.98 (0.87–1.10)
4 to <5 0.98 (0.86–1.12)
≥5 0.88 (0.76–1.02)
  1. aNumber of cases included in the analysis of coffee consumption and atrial fibrillation; bcoffee consumption in cups/day. AF, atrial fibrillation; BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; CVD, cardiovascular disease; ECG, electrocardiogram; ICD, International Classification of Disease; MI, myocardial infarction; NA, not available; RR, relative risk