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Table 5 Sensitivity to discount rates and coverage in risk groups

From: Extending the elderly- and risk-group programme of vaccination against seasonal influenza in England and Wales: a cost-effectiveness study

a) 3.5 % discount (Base case)
Extension to 2–4 50–64 5–16 2–4 + 50–64 2–16 2–16 + 50–64 2–64
ICER 2613 7350 1745 5637 1949 3073 5046
Net benefit in mil £ 74 91 460 164 521 604 819
Lower 12 –8 94 9 104 93 65
Higher 266 385 1577 614 1785 2107 3046
b) 1.5 % discount
Extension to 2–4 50–64 5–16 2–4 + 50–64 2–16 2–16 + 50–64 2–64
ICER 2509 7030 1675 5398 1869 2943 4818
Net benefit 79 99 487 177 551 642 875
Lower 15 –2 115 17 126 118 108
Higher 272 394 1615 626 1820 2141 3090
c) 0 % discount
Extension to 2–4 50–64 5–16 2–4 + 50–64 2–16 2–16 + 50–64 2–64
ICER 2406 6715 1604 5162 1788 2813 4590
Net benefit 83 107 515 190 584 680 941
Lower 18 3 135 25 148 153 159
Higher 276 401 1643 639 1864 2174 3139
d) Risk groups vaccinated with a 75 % coverage
Extension to 2–4 50–64 5–16 2–4 + 50–64 2–16 2–16 + 50–64 2–64
ICER 2748 8677 2393 6655 2618 3844 6667
Net benefit 72 86 417 158 463 520 592
Lower 11 –17 71 –3 75 59 –17
Higher 258 381 1438 600 1607 1847 2411
  1. Cost-effectiveness ratios (compared with the elderly- and risk-group strategy) and net benefits with associated 95 % credibility intervals using different discount rates (a–c) for future benefits (QALYs) and a different baseline (d) for the coverage in risk-groups (75 %)
  2. ICER, Incremental cost effectiveness ratio