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Table 4 Cox regression analysis of risk of new Plasmodium falciparum infection by day 28

From: Artemether-lumefantrine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and therapeutic response using individual patient data

Parameter Patientsa Eventsa HR (95 % CI) P value
Univariable model  
Day 7 lumefantrine concentration (log2)     
Allb 2,528 180 0.79 (0.72 to 0.87) <0.001
 Venous plasma 1,336 40 0.65 (0.56 to 0.76) <0.001
 Capillary bloodb 663 130 0.87 (0.78 to 0.98) 0.002
 Venous blood 529 10 0.82 (0.33 to 2.07) 0.619
Age (years) 2,528 180 0.95 (0.92 to 0.99) 0.009
Age category     
  < 1 year 73 9 3.51 (1.16 to 10.59) 0.026
 1–4 years 1,004 148 5.01 (2.06 to 12.21) <0.001
 5–11 years 540 14 2.95 (1.17 to 7.39) 0.021
 12+ years 911 9 Reference  
Sex (female) 2,528 (1,157) 180 (93) 1.13 (0.84 to 1.51) 0.428
WAZ 1,076 157 0.86 (0.76 to 0.97) 0.015
Underweightc 1,076 (192) 157 (37) 1.22 (0.84 to 1.79) 0.299
Transmission intensity areas (TIAs)     
 Very low/lowd 557 9 0.17 (0.05 to 0.51) 0.002
 Moderate 721 17 0.16 (0.05 to 0.56) 0.004
 High 1,070 154 Reference  
Multivariable model  
Day 7 lumefantrine concentration (log2)e 2,528 180 0.70 (0.63 to 0.78) <0.001
Location/transmission intensity area (TIA)     
Very low/low/moderate TIA 1,304 26 0.22 (0.06 to 0.82) 0.024
High TIA     
  < 1 year 57 9 0.91 (0.27 to 3.05) 0.882
 1–4 years 703 138 1.35 (0.49 to 3.74) 0.565
 5+ years 464 7 Reference  
  1. aNumber in brackets refers to patients with presence of the symptom/characteristic; bP value for testing proportional hazards assumption <0.05; conly evaluated in children <5 years of age and defined as weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) < −2; dvery low and low TIAs were combined as no new infections were observed in very low TIA; efor concentrations measured on filter paper, the association with risk of new infection diminished after 21 days, hazard ratio = 1.062 (0.887–1.270), while for venous plasma this remained the same over the whole period. TIA, transmission intensity area