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Table 1 Comparison demographics and risk behavior at baseline. Reported by individuals with a single HIV test during the study period versus those with repeated HIV tests (those with two or more tests, and the subpopulation with five or more tests)

From: Repeat HIV-testing is associated with an increase in behavioral risk among men who have sex with men: a cohort study

Risk factor/risk behavior (within 12 months prior to test) and demographics Single testers a Repeat testers (2 or more tests) a P value b Repeat tester (5 or more tests) a P value b
N 5402 3202   814  
Number of male partners (median, IQR) 5 (3–10) 6 (3–12) <0.001 6 (4–14) <0.001
10 or more male partners 1624/5397 (30.1 %) 1120/3197 (35.0 %) <0.001 319 (39.2 %) <0.001
Intercourse with females also 594/5389 (11.0 %) 277/3192 (8.7 %) <0.001 64/813 (7.9 %) 0.007
CIAI with male 3188/5347 (59.6 %) 1974/3170 (62.3 %) 0.016 491/804 (61.1 %) n.s.
CRAI 2611/5343 (48.9 %) 1664/3167 (52.5 %) 0.001 434/802 (54.1 %) 0.003
CRAI and 5 or more male partners 1544/5342 (28.9 %) 1102/3165 (34.8 %) <0.001 306/802 (38.2 %) <0.001
CRAI and 10 or more male partners 892/5342 (16.7 %) 632/3165 (20.0 %) <0.001 181/802 (22.6 %) <0.001
CRAI with HIV positive 214/5097 (4.2 %) 121/2947 (4.1 %) n.s. 19/725 (2.6 %) 0.043
CRAI with PWID 56/5281 (1.1 %) 29/3129 (0.9 %) n.s. 4/790 (0.5 %) n.s.
CRAI with sex worker 21/5147 (0.4 %) 9/3052 (0.3 %) n.s. 1/764 (0.1 %) n.s.
Worked as sex worker 84/3799 (2.2 %) 45/2004 (2.3 %) n.s. 8/424 (1.9 %) n.s.
Syphilis c 101 (1.9 %) 59 (1.8 %) n.s. 23 (2.8 %) n.s.
Gonorrhea c 274 (5.1 %) 193 (6.0 %) n.s. 47 (5.8 %) n.s.
Chlamydia c 214 (4.0 %) 129 (4.0 %) n.s. 48 (5.9 %) 0.01
Any STI c 596 (11.0 %) 402 (12.6 %) 0.033 126 (15.5 %) <0.001
Methamphetamine, not injected 363 (6.7 %) 189 (5.9 %) n.s. 44 (5.4 %) n.s.
Non-injection stimulant drug use (i.e. methamphetamine, cocaine, poppers, GHB, ketamine, XTC) 1316 (24.4 %) 765 (23.9 %) n.s. 176 (21.6 %) n.s.
IDU 77 (1.4 %) 37 (1.2 %) n.s. 5 (0.6 %) n.s.
IDU with shared needles 35/5378 (0.7 %) 7/3180 (0.2 %) 0.006 0 0.021
Demographic data
 Age (years; median, IQR) 33 (26–43) 32 (26–42) 0.011 32 (26–41) n.s.
 Male 5402 (100 %) 3202 (100 %) n.s. 814 (100 %)  
 Hispanic origin 1434/5249 (27.3 %) 850/3105 (27.4 %) n.s. 203/785 (25.9 %) n.s.
 Race <0.001 <0.001
  Caucasian 3513/5066 (69.3 %) 2112/3021 (69.9 %) n.s. 547/783 (69.9 %) n.s.
  African-American 317/5066 (6.3 %) 143/3021 (4.7 %) 0.005 39/783 (5.0 %) n.s.
  Asian 398/5066 (7.9 %) 195/3021 (6.5 %) 0.022 52/783 (6.6 %) n.s.
  Pacific Islander 142/5066 (2.8 %) 53/3021 (1.8 %) 0.004 11/783 (1.4 %) 0.030
  Native American 37/5066 (0.7 %) 15/3021 (0.5 %) n.s. 1/783 (0.1 %) n.s.
  Other 659/5066 (13.0 %) 503/3021 (16.7 %) <0.001 133/783 (17.0 %) 0.002
  1. CIAI, Condomless insertive anal intercourse; CRAI, Condomless receptive anal intercourse; GHB, Gamma hydroxybutyrate; IDU, Injection drug use; IQR, Inter-quartile range; MSM, Men who have sex with men; n.s., Not significant; PWID, Person who injects drugs; STI, Sexually transmitted infection; XTC, Ecstasy
  2. a Data available from all individuals if denominator not depicted
  3. b Calculated using χ2 or Mann–Whitney U-test
  4. c All self-reported diagnosis within the last 12 months