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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in the EPIC study. Values refer to either median (minimum – maximum range) or number (percentage)

From: Metabolomic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma in a European prospective cohort

  HCC cases Matched controls
Characteristics (n = 114)a (n = 222)
Gender
 Men 79 (69.3 %) 153 (68.9 %)
 Women 35 (30.7 %) 69 (31.1 %)
Age at blood collection (years) 60.6 (46.1–77) 60.2 (45.7–77)
Age at diagnosis (years) 65.3 (47.6–86.4)  
Lag time (years)b 4.8 (0.01–13.3)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 27.7 (19.5–43.4) 26.5 (17.2–40.2)
Waist circumference (cm) 95 (68.5–140) 92.2 (64–130)
Smoking status
 Never 30 (26.3 %) 94 (42.3 %)
 Former 39 (34.2 %) 86 (38.7 %)
 Current smoker 44 (38.6 %) 41 (18.5 %)
Unknown 1 (0.9 %) 1 (0.5 %)
Serum-clot contact timec
 ≤1 day 84 (73.7 %) 169 (76.1 %)
 >1 day 30 (26.3 %) 53 (23.9 %)
Educational status
 Primary school/None 61 (53.5 %) 106 (47.7 %)
 Secondary school 4 (3.5 %) 23 (10.4 %)
 Technical/professional school 30 (26.3 %) 45 (20.3 %)
 Longer education 18 (15.8 %) 44 (19.8 %)
 Unknown 1 (0.9 %) 4 (1.8 %)
Physical activity
 Inactive 10 (8.8 %) 29 (13.1 %)
 Moderately inactive 36 (31.6 %) 71 (32 %)
 Moderately active 57 (50 %) 100 (45 %)
 Active 11 (9.6 %) 22 (9.9 %)
Lifetime alcohol drinking pattern
 Never drinkers 10 (8.8 %) 17 (7.7 %)
 Former drinkers 17 (14.9 %) 3 (1.4 %)
 Drinkers only at recruitment 17 (14.9 %) 43 (19.4 %)
 Lifetime drinkers 70 (61.4 %) 159 (71.6 %)
Alcohol intake at recruitment (g/day) 7.5 (0–141.3) 8.8 (0–108.6)
HBV/HCV status
 No 77 (67.5 %) 215 (96.8 %)
 Yes 37 (32.5 %) 7 (3.2 %)
Liver function scored
 No 34 (29.8 %) 188 (84.7 %)
 Probable 42 (36.8 %) 32 (14.4 %)
 Likely 38 (33.3 %) 2 (0.9 %)
AFP (ng/mL) 5.3 (0–18780) 3.25 (0–20.8)
  1. aDistribution of HCC cancer cases across EPIC countries was 29 for Denmark, 20 for Germany, 11 for Greece, 19 for Italy, 4 for the Netherlands, 7 for Spain, 16 for Sweden, and 8 for the United Kingdom
  2. bFollow-up time between blood collection and HCC diagnosis
  3. cSerum-clot contact time refers to the time between blood collection and blood centrifugation for serum isolation
  4. dA categorical liver function score describing liver damage was constructed based on values of albumin (<35 g/L), total bilirubin (>20.5 μmol/L), AST (>34 U/L), ALT (>55 U/L), GGT (men >64 U/L, women >36 U/L), and AP (>150 U/L), each contributing 1 point when outside of the normal range