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Table 4 Odds ratios [OR (95 % confidence intervals)] of HCC risk by serum metabolites

From: Metabolomic profiles of hepatocellular carcinoma in a European prospective cohort

  Crudea Multivariableb Multivariable + liver function scorec Multivariable for non-hepatitis infected casesd Crude <2 years follow-upe Crude ≥2 years follow-upf Multivariable ≥2 years follow-upg
114 cases 114 cases 114 cases 77 cases 22 cases 92 cases 92 cases
N-acetyl glycoproteins 0.47 (0.36–0.62)*** 0.46 (0.32–0.67)*** 0.76 (0.49–1.17) 0.74 (0.49–1.14) 0.64 (0.39–1.05) 0.43 (0.31–0.60)*** 0.35 (0.21–0.59)***
Glutamate 2.37 (1.64–3.41)*** 2.44 (1.54–3.87)*** 1.46 (0.80–2.63) 2.06 (1.18–3.61)* 4.87 (1.26–18.82)* 2.05 (1.43–2.94)*** 2.13 (1.30–3.49)**
Tyrosine 2.00 (1.51–2.65)*** 2.46 (1.65–3.66)*** 1.58 (0.98–2.56) 1.42 (0.83–2.43) 3.90 (1.50–10.14)** 1.83 (1.36–2.47)*** 2.23 (1.41–3.54)***
Choline 0.37 (0.27–0.51)*** 0.45 (0.31–0.65)*** 0.83 (0.52–1.32) 0.68 (0.42–1.12) 0.30 (0.13–0.66)** 0.39 (0.27–0.56)*** 0.45 (0.29–0.71)***
Phenylalanine 1.83 (1.37–2.44)*** 2.07 (1.40–3.06)*** 1.75 (1.04–2.94)* 1.59 (0.94–2.67) 3.59 (1.29–10)* 1.62 (1.20–2.19)** 1.64 (1.07–2.54)*
Leucine 0.54 (0.41–0.71)*** 0.60 (0.43–0.85)** 0.67 (0.43–1.05) 0.68 (0.43–1.09) 0.80 (0.48–1.33) 0.47 (0.34–0.66)*** 0.51 (0.33–0.80)**
Unsaturated lipids 0.29 (0.18–0.46)*** 0.36 (0.21–0.63)*** 0.77 (0.41–1.44) 0.59 (0.29–1.23) 0.16 (0.04–0.60)** 0.33 (0.20–0.53)*** 0.46 (0.24–0.84)*
Isoleucine 0.64 (0.49–0.83)*** 0.72 (0.53–0.98)* 0.84 (0.56–1.26) 0.76 (0.50–1.15) 0.84 (0.50–1.42) 0.59 (0.44–0.80)*** 0.66 (0.45–0.96)*
VLDL 0.58 (0.45–0.76)*** 0.52 (0.36–0.74)*** 0.77 (0.51–1.15) 0.74 (0.45–1.20) 0.30 (0.12–0.72)** 0.64 (0.49–0.85)** 0.58 (0.39–0.87)**
Propylene glycol 3.07 (1.58–5.97)*** 2.20 (1.06–4.60)* 1.00 (0.59–1.69) 1.27 (0.73–2.21) 727.9 (1.56–340468)* 2.11 (1.24–3.58)** 1.46 (0.83–2.55)
Ethanolh 1.76 (1.13–2.74)* 1.46 (0.97–2.21) 1.02 (0.69–1.51) 1.10 (0.74–1.65) 126.1 (1.3–12227)* 1.66 (1.09–2.53)* 1.40 (0.95–2.08)
Glutamine 0.66 (0.51–0.84)** 0.75 (0.54–1.03) 0.96 (0.64–1.44) 0.56 (0.34–0.92)* 0.60 (0.30–1.15) 0.67 (0.51–0.88)** 0.74 (0.51–1.07)
Glucose 1.53 (1.18–1.99)** 1.67 (1.19–2.35)** 1.28 (0.86–1.92) 1.24 (0.80–1.92) 1.95 (0.98–3.88) 1.47 (1.10–1.96)** 1.77 (1.16–2.69)**
Valine 0.69 (0.54–0.88)** 0.82 (0.61–1.11) 0.90 (0.61–1.34) 0.78 (0.51–1.18) 0.75 (0.44–1.27) 0.68 (0.52–0.89)** 0.79 (0.55–1.13)
Acetate 1.40 (1.08–1.82)* 1.20 (0.90–1.60) 0.92 (0.58–1.46) 1.01 (0.63–1.61) 3.04 (0.45–20.69) 1.32 (1.01–1.75)* 1.12 (0.76–1.63)
Citrate 1.36 (1.06–1.76)* 1.76 (1.22–2.54)** 1.88 (1.14–3.11)* 1.15 (0.65–2.01) 2.19 (1.10–4.35)* 1.22 (0.93–1.61) 1.37 (0.91–2.06)
  1. *P value <0.05; **P value <0.01; ***P value <0.001
  2. aModel 1, Crude OR based on logistic regression conditioned on matching factors (sex, age, date and time of blood collection, fasting status, and menopausal status and use of hormones)
  3. bModel 2, OR based on multivariable CLR adjusted for smoking status, ethanol at recruitment, lifetime alcohol, educational status, physical activity, body mass index, serum-clot contact time, and waist circumference
  4. cModel 3, as in model 2 and additionally adjusted for liver function score
  5. dModel 4, as model 2 but obtained on HCC cases free of HBV/HCV infection and their matched controls (n = 224)
  6. eModel 5, Crude OR obtained on HCC cases diagnosed <2 years after blood collection and their matched controls
  7. fModel 6, Crude OR obtained on HCC cases diagnosed ≥2 years after blood collection and their matched controls
  8. gModel 7, as in model 2 but obtained on HCC cases diagnosed ≥2 years after blood collection and their matched controls
  9. hOR of ethanol from multivariable CLR model are obtained after adjustment for variables as mentioned for model 2 expect for lifetime alcohol