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Table 1 Sample characteristics

From: Is dying in hospital better than home in incurable cancer and what factors influence this? A population-based study

  All Home death Hospital death
  (n = 352) (n = 175) (n = 177)
Patient’s gender    
 Male 192 (54.5 %) 94 (53.7 %) 98 (55.4 %)
 Female 160 (45.5 %) 81 (46.3 %) 79 (44.6 %)
Patient’s age    
 Median in years (IQR) 76 (67–83) 76 (66–83) 76 (67–83.5)
Type of cancer (underlying cause of death)    
 Digestive 105 (29.8 %) 59 (33.7 %) 46 (26.0 %)
 Respiratory and intra-thoracic organs 80 (22.7 %) 40 (22.9 %) 40 (22.6 %)
 Eye, brain, and other parts of the central nervous system 13 (3.7 %) 11 (6.3 %) 2 (1.1 %)
 Breast 18 (5.1 %) 9 (5.1 %) 9 (5.1 %)
 Lymphoid, haematopoietic, and related tissue 26 (7.4 %) 8 (4.6 %) 18 (10.2 %)
 Genitourinary 67 (19.0 %) 25 (14.3 %) 42 (23.7 %)
 Unspecified and other 43 (12.2 %) 23 (13.1 %) 20 (11.3 %)
Mobility at 3 months to death (EQ-5D)    
 No problems 95 (28.4 %) 42 (25.6 %) 53 (31.0 %)
 Some problems 211 (63.0 %) 106 (64.6 %) 105 (61.4 %)
 Confined to bed 29 (8.7 %) 16 (9.8 %) 13 (7.6 %)
Self-care at 3 months to death (EQ-5D)    
 No problems 148 (44.7 %) 68 (42.2 %) 80 (47.1 %)
 Some problems 128 (38.7 %) 68 (42.2 %) 60 (35.3 %)
 Unable to wash/dress her/himself 55 (16.6 %) 25 (15.5 %) 30 (17.6 %)
Usual activities at 3 months to death (EQ-5D)    
 No problems 76 (22.8 %) 31 (18.8 %) 45 (26.6 %)
 Some problems 152 (45.5 %) 82 (49.7 %) 70 (41.4 %)
 Unable to perform usual activities 106 (31.7 %) 52 (31.5 %) 54 (32.0 %)
Patient’s country of birth    
 UK/Ireland 288 (81.8 %) 142 (81.1 %) 146 (82.5 %)
 Elsewhere 64 (18.2 %) 33 (18.9 %) 31 (17.5 %)
Patient’s ethnicity    
 White British/Irish 291 (84.6 %) 145 (84.8 %) 146 (84.4 %)
 White other/unspecified 21 (6.1 %) 13 (7.6 %) 8 (4.6 %)
 Other 32 (9.3 %) 13 (7.6 %) 19 (11.0 %)
IMD 2010 (patient’s residence area) a    
 5th quintile (least deprived) 89 (25.3 %) 46 (26.3 %) 43 (24.3 %)
 4th quintile 69 (19.6 %) 41 (23.4 %) 28 (15.8 %)
 3rd quintile 55 (15.6 %) 31 (17.7 %) 24 (13.6 %)
 2nd quintile 85 (24.1 %) 35 (20.0 %) 50 (28.2 %)
 1st quintile (most deprived) 54 (15.3 %) 22 (12.6 %) 32 (18.1 %)
Patient’s marital status    
 Married/with partner 199 (58.0 %) 117 (68.8 %) 82 (47.4 %)
 Widowed 86 (25.1 %) 34 (20.0 %) 52 (30.1 %)
 Divorced/separated 25 (7.3 %) 9 (5.3 %) 16 (9.2 %)
 Never married 33 (9.6 %) 10 (5.9 %) 23 (13.3 %)
Patient’s living with relatives    
 Yes 249 (71.6 %) 145 (83.8 %) 104 (59.4 %)
 No 99 (28.4 %) 28 (16.2 %) 71 (40.6 %)
Patient’s preference for PoD    
 Home 262 (83.7 %) 168 (97.7 %) 94 (66.7 %)
 Other or no preference 51 (16.3 %) 4 (2.3 %) 47 (33.3 %)
Relative’s gender    
 Male 118 (33.8 %) 53 (30.6 %) 65 (36.9 %)
 Female 231 (66.2 %) 120 (69.4 %) 111 (63.1 %)
Relative’s age    
 Median in years (IQR) 59 (49–70) 60 (50–71) 57 (49–68)
Relative’s relationship to patient    
 Spouse/partner 147 (41.9 %) 85 (48.6 %) 62 (35.2 %)
 Son/daughter 142 (40.5 %) 75 (42.9 %) 67 (38.1 %)
 Brother/sister 20 (5.7 %) 4 (2.3 %) 16 (9.1 %)
 Other 42 (12.0 %) 11 (6.3 %) 31 (17.6 %)
Relative’s preference for PoD at 3 months to death    
 Home 215 (61.8 %) 159 (91.9 %) 56 (32.0 %)
 Other or no preference 133 (38.2 %) 14 (8.1 %) 119 (68.0 %)
Change in relative’s preference for PoD in 3 months prior death    
 Yes 42 (12.7 %) 16 (9.5 %) 26 (16.0 %)
 No 289 (87.3 %) 153 (90.5 %) 136 (84.0 %)
  1. a Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 national quintile of the area of last residence of the deceased. This information was provided by the Office for National Statistics based on death registration information of the patient’s lower layer super output area of residence (LSOA). The IMD 2010 score is a measure based on 38 indicators, chosen to cover a broad range of economic, social, and housing issues, into a single relative deprivation score for each LSOA in England [34]. The different domains are combined using appropriate weights to calculate the IMD 2010 score, an overall measure of multiple deprivation experienced by people living in the respective area. This represents unmet needs caused by lack of resources of all kinds (income, employment, health and disability, education skills and training, barriers to housing and other services, crime and living environment)
  2. Percentages may not add to 100 % due to rounding
  3. IQR, Interquartile range; PoD, Place of death