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Table 1 Age standardizeda reproductive and lifestyle characteristics of the EPIC study population by country

From: Reproductive factors and risk of mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; a cohort study

  Total Denmark France Germany Greece Italy Norway Spain Sweden The Netherlands United Kingdom
No. of participants 322,972 27,887 66,878 26,766 13,893 30,008 35,215 23,828 19,930 26,223 52,344
Number of deaths 14,383 1,879 2,913 671 527 834 756 625 1,583 1,419 3,176
Mean (SD)            
 Age at recruitment, years 50.3 (9.6) 56.2 (4.4) 52.1 (6.6) 48.1 (8.9) 51.6 (12.3) 50.0 (8.0) 47.6 (4.3) 47.5 (8.3) 54.9 (8.1) 50.2 (11.6) 47.1 (14.1)
 Duration OC use, yearsb,c 7.7 (7.3) 9.4 (6.4) 7.4 (6.3) 12.4 (8.5) 2.5 (2.8) 4.1 (4.8) 5.0 (4.5) 3.7 (3.6) 9.7 (8.3) 9.9 (7.3) 7.6 (6.8)
 Number of FTPsc,d,e 2.3 (1.0) 2.2 (0.6) 2.3 (0.9) 2.0 (0.9) 2.3 (1.0) 2.1 (0.9) 2.4 (0.8) 2.8 (1.3) 2.2 (0.9) 2.6 (1.2) 2.3 (1.0)
 Age at first FTPc,d 24.9 (4.4) 23.8 (3.1) 24.9 (3.7) 24.2 (4.4) 24.1 (4.7) 25.8 (4.3) 24.0 (3.7) 24.9 (3.8) 24.6 (4.1) 25.4 (4.3) 25.6 (4.9)
 Breastfeeding, monthsc,f 9.6 (10.6) 9.4 (6.3) 5.5 (5.2) 5.4 (6.4) 13.7 (16.3) 9.1 (8.5) 13.6 (9.5) 13.1 (12.8) 9.7 (7.3) 6.6 (6.9) 9.9 (12.9)
 Age at menarche, yearsc 13.1 (1.5) 13.7 (1.2) 12.9 (1.3) 13.2 (1.5) 13.2 (1.6) 12.6 (1.5) 13.3 (1.1) 13.0 (1.6) 13.3 (1.5) 13.3 (1.6) 12.9 (1.6)
 Age at menopause, yearsc,g 49.4 (4.4) 49.9 (3.9) 50.2 (4.3) 50.1 (3.2) 48.0 (4.7) 49.2 (4.1) 48.6 (3.3) 48.8 (4.4) 49.1 (4.5) 49.2 (4.6)
 BMI, kg/m2 24.9 (4.4) 25.5 (3.2) 23.0 (3.2) 25.7 (4.6) 28.5 (5.2) 25.6 (4.3) 24.5 (3.1) 28.5 (4.6) 24.7 (4.2) 25.1 (4.2) 24.6 (4.2)
Percentages            
 Ever use OCsc 59 58 60 80 11 40 60 36 61 76 68
 Parousc 85 88 90 86 90 87 92 89 86 81 78
 Ever breastfedc,e 85 93 72 84 88 84 94 89 95 81 83
 Infertilityc,h 5 6 1 4 6 4 3 5
 Premenopausal 35 7 27 37 38 38 23 42 27 37 38
 Postmenopausal 43 73 45 42 45 43 44 41 48 40 43
 Surgical menopausei 3 5 3 3 6 4 0 6 0 2 4
 Perimenopausal/unknown menopause 19 16 25 17 12 15 32 11 26 20 15
 Hysterectomyc,j 11 14 10 16 9 9 5 10 16 16
 Oophorectomyc,j 7 10 6 8 8 8 1 9 8 8
 Current smokerc,k 20 31 9 18 19 26 32 15 25 29 11
 Marital status: single 9 0 17 8 4 6 0 0 7 12 9
 Ever marriedl 72 0 80 92 96 93 81 0 92 87 90
 Marital status: unknown 19 100 4 0 0 1 19 100 0 0 0
  1. BMI, Body mass index; FTP, Full term pregnancy; OCs, Oral contraceptives
  2. aAll variables (with the exception of age) were age standardized using 5-year age groups to the age distribution of the entire study population
  3. bAmong ever users of OCs
  4. cVariables had missing data (≤4.2 % missing) with the exception of ever breastfed among parous (6.1 % missing), duration OC use in ever users (9.5 % missing), and age at natural menopause (26.3 % missing)
  5. dFTPs includes live births and stillbirths
  6. eAmong parous women
  7. fAmong women with a FTP who had ever breastfed
  8. gPostmenopausal women only; exclusions were participants from Sweden (no data for hysterectomy/oophorectomy), those who reported a surgical menopause (hysterectomy/oophorectomy), or if information on surgical menopause was not available
  9. hDenmark, Sweden, Norway and the Bilthoven study centre were excluded since data were not available
  10. iDefined as bilateral oophorectomy only
  11. jSweden was excluded from these comparisons because data were not available
  12. kCurrent smoking included smoking of cigarettes, pipes, or cigars
  13. lEver married includes living together, divorced, separated, and widowed