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Table 2 Characteristics of included citations

From: Towards understanding the de-adoption of low-value clinical practices: a scoping review

Characteristic Number (%) of 109 citations
Year of publication  
 1990–1999 3 (3)
 2000–2009 42 (38)
 2010–current 64 (59)
Country of origina  
 North America 65 (60)
 Europe 30 (28)
 Australasia 22 (20)
Type of article  
 Original research 71 (65)
  Quasi-experimentalc 30 (28)
  Cohort studyb 15 (14)
  Mixed methods 8 (7)
  Qualitative 4 (4)
  Predictive modeling 3 (3)
  Knowledge synthesis 3 (3)
  Consensus method 3 (3)
  Randomized clinical trial 1 (1)
  Otherd 6 (6)
 Non-original research 38 (35)
  Editorial, letter to the editor, news item, other 21 (19)
  Narrative review 16 (15)
  Guideline 1 (1)
Focus of article  
 Identify low-value practices 51 (47)
 Facilitate the de-adoption process 44 (40)
 Evaluate de-adoption outcomes 54 (50)
 Sustain de-adoption 2 (2)
Type of interventione  
 Therapeutic 68 (62)
  Drug 34 (31)
  Device or surgical procedure 16 (15)
  Drugs and devices/procedures 16 (15)
  Other 3 (3)
 Diagnostic 27 (30)
  Laboratory 7 (8)
  Physiologic measurement 4 (4)
  Diagnostic imaging 3 (3)
  Screening program 1 (1)
  Diagnostic tests not otherwise specified 12 (13)
Evidence to promote de-adoptionf  
 Randomized clinical trial 45 (41)
 Knowledge synthesis 14 (13)
 Clinical practice guideline 6 (5)
 Cohort study 4 (4)
 Quasi-experimentalc 2 (2)
 Expert consensus 2 (2)
Reasons for de-adoptiong  
 Harm 80 (73)
 Lack of efficacy 69 (63)
 Not cost-effective 37 (34)
  1. Percentages within each characteristic may not always total to 100 due to rounding error, and/or redundancy within citations (e.g., a citation may have more than one country of origin)
  2. aNorth American countries: Canada, USA; European countries: UK, Belgium, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Spain; Australian countries: Australia, New Zealand
  3. bIncludes six studies wherein the study population was a cohort of articles identified through searches of the electronic literature
  4. cIncludes interrupted time series, and before-and-after studies
  5. dIncludes two surveys, one report on stakeholder engagement, one simulation
  6. eType of intervention not reported in 32 studies
  7. fNot reported in 46 studies (52 %)
  8. gNot reported in 11 studies