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Table 3 Mixed-effects logistic regression of AL use by malaria status in quarter 4 compared to baseline. Comparison of AL treatment in intervention and control arm for all patients and by sub-group (transmission zone, age group)

From: Using pay for performance incentives (P4P) to improve management of suspected malaria fevers in rural Kenya: a cluster randomized controlled trial

  Raw proportion    
Endpoint Comparison Intervention    
  Clusters Baseline Quarter 4 Clusters Baseline Quarter 4 Unadjusted OR Adjusted OR ICC (95 % CI)
        (95 % CI) (95 % CI)a  
Malaria-negative patients receiving AL          
  All ages 8 0.16 0.11 9 0.22 0.07 0.34 0.36 0.140
(0.24–0.53) (0.24–0.57) (0.073–0.252)
  Aged 1–5 years 8 0.20 0.12 9 0.27 0.10 0.43 0.48 0.135
(0.24–0.79) (0.25–0.86) (0.063–0.262)
  Aged 6 years and over 8 0.14 0.10 9 0.19 0.05 0.28 0.27 0.159
(0.15–0.52) (0.15–0.52) (0.081–0.288)
  High transmission 4 0.32 0.18 5 0.36 0.12 0.41 0.45 0.109
(0.25–0.67) (0.28–0.74) (0.045–0.241)
  Low transmission 4 0.06 0.02 4 0.11 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.112
(0.05–0.52) (0.05–0.56) (0.039–0.281)
Malaria-positive patients receiving AL
  All ages 8 0.71 0.78 9 0.71 0.80 0.88 0.91 0.019
(0.46–1.69) (0.47–1.77) (0.007–0.054)
  Aged 1–5 years 8 0.76 0.77 9 0.77 0.82 0.93 0.98 0.029
(0.35–2.49) (0.37–2.62) (0.008–0.101)
  Aged 6 years and over 8 0.66 0.79 9 0.64 0.77 0.89 0.87 0.005
(0.36–2.18) (0.35–2.15) (0.0003–0.070)
  High transmission 4 0.72 0.85 5 0.79 0.82 0.54 0.54 0.004
(0.23–1.27) (0.23–1.28) (0.0002–0.075)
  Low transmission 4 0.71 0.62 4 0.59 0.54 1.10 1.16 0.028
(0.34–3.54) (0.36–3.78) (0.006–0.120)
  1. aEstimates adjusted for quarter, age category (except for stratified analysis), gender, mode of diagnosis (RDT or microscopy), transmission zone (except for stratified analysis) and average monthly volume of slides read in the facility in the preceding year. AL, artemether-lumefantrine; CI, confidence interval; ICC, intracluster correlation; OR, odds ratio; RDT, rapid diagnostic test