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Table 1 Pathogenic processes underlying Parkinson’s disease and presumed related genetic loci, genes, and proteins

From: Can the disease course in Parkinson’s disease be slowed?

  Disease Gene locus Gene Encoded protein
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress PARK7 PARK6 1p36 1p36 DJ-1 PINK1 DJ-1 PTEN-induced kinase 1
Neuroinflammation and immune mechanisms PARK2 PARK1/4 2p13 6q26 4q22.1 PARK3 PARK2 SNCA Parkin α-synuclein
Altered protein handling (including the ubiquitin-proteasome system) PARK5 PARK17 2p13 4q14 16q11.2 PARK2 UCHL1 VPS35 Parkin Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 35
Lysosomal dysfunction Gaucher’s related PARK9 1q22 GBA ATP13A2 Glucocerebrosidase ATPase 13A2
α-synuclein aggregation PARK8 PARK1/4 12q12 4q22.1 LRRK2 SNCA Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 α-synuclein