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Table 1 Pathogenic processes underlying Parkinson’s disease and presumed related genetic loci, genes, and proteins

From: Can the disease course in Parkinson’s disease be slowed?

  Disease Gene locus Gene Encoded protein
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress PARK7
PARK6
1p36
1p36
DJ-1
PINK1
DJ-1
PTEN-induced kinase 1
Neuroinflammation and immune mechanisms PARK2
PARK1/4
2p13
6q26
4q22.1
PARK3
PARK2
SNCA
Parkin
α-synuclein
Altered protein handling (including the ubiquitin-proteasome system) PARK5
PARK17
2p13
4q14
16q11.2
PARK2
UCHL1
VPS35
Parkin
Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1
Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 35
Lysosomal dysfunction Gaucher’s related
PARK9
1q22 GBA
ATP13A2
Glucocerebrosidase
ATPase 13A2
α-synuclein aggregation PARK8
PARK1/4
12q12
4q22.1
LRRK2
SNCA
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 α-synuclein