Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Associations of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) levels and total thiol levels (TTL) with all-cause and disease-specific mortality

From: Evidence for the free radical/oxidative stress theory of ageing from the CHANCES consortium: a meta-analysis of individual participant data

Outcome Oxidative stress marker Modelling ncases Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
  RR (95 % CI)a RR (95 % CI)b RR (95 % CI)c RR (95 % CI)d
All-cause mortality d-ROMs ≤340 Carr U 499 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  341–400 Carr U 545 1.27 (1.07–1.51)* 1.21 (1.04–1.40)* 1.20 (1.03–1.40)* 1.13 (0.96–1.32)
  401–500 Carr U 499 1.86 (1.58–2.17)* 1.60 (1.35–1.89)* 1.53 (1.29–1.83)* 1.32 (1.10–1.59)*
  >500 Carr U 159 4.48 (2.87–7.00)* 3.79 (2.08–6.90)* 2.99 (1.62–5.52)* 2.30 (1.40–3.77)*
d-ROMs Increase per 1 SDe 1702 1.44 (1.35–1.53)* 1.34 (1.25–1.43)* 1.28 (1.19–1.36)* 1.20 (1.12–1.29)*
TTL Decrease per 1 SDf 1702 1.17 (1.04–1.33)* 1.19 (1.07–1.32)* 1.14 (1.06–1.23)* 1.12 (1.04–1.21)*
CVD mortality d-ROMs ≤340 Carr U 157 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  341–400 Carr U 178 1.29 (1.00–1.67)* 1.28 (0.97–1.70) 1.28 (0.89–1.82) 1.14 (0.83–1.56)
  401–500 Carr U 171 1.71 (1.32–2.22)* 1.78 (1.31–2.43)* 1.81 (1.28–2.54)* 1.49 (1.04–2.13)*
  >500 Carr Ug 54 5.16 (2.35–11.31)* 5.09 (2.67–9.69)* 4.86 (2.38–9.95)* 4.34 (2.06–9.15)*
d-ROMs Increase per 1 SDe 560 1.53 (1.35–1.72)* 1.44 (1.27–1.64)* 1.37 (1.19–1.58)* 1.30 (1.12–1.51)*
TTL Decrease per 1 SDf 560 1.31 (1.17–1.47)* 1.30 (1.15–1.48)* 1.27 (1.10–1.47)* 1.25 (1.09–1.45)*
Cancer mortality d-ROMs ≤340 Carr U 198 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  341–400 Carr U 224 1.27 (1.01–1.61)* 1.18 (0.92–1.51) 1.17 (0.91–1.52) 1.08 (0.83–1.41)
  401–500 Carr U 200 1.71 (1.32–2.21)* 1.48 (1.12–2.75)* 1.41 (1.05–1.89)* 1.16 (0.85–1.57)
  >500 Carr U 80 5.29 (3.16–8.85)* 4.34 (2.31–8.16)* 3.82 (1.79–8.18)* 2.50 (1.31–4.78)*
d-ROMs Increase per 1 SDe 702 1.42 (1.29–1.56)* 1.35 (1.20–1.52)* 1.30 (1.14–1.47)* 1.19 (1.05–1.35)*
TTL Decrease per 1 SDf 702 1.05 (0.92–1.19) 1.07 (0.96–1.19) 1.01 (0.90–1.13) 0.98 (0.87–1.09)
Non-CVD, non-cancer mortality d-ROMs ≤340 Carr U 103 Ref Ref Ref Ref
  341–400 Carr U 99 1.15 (0.80–1.67) 0.94 (0.52–1.68) 0.97 (0.51–1.82) 0.85 (0.48–1.49)
  401–500 Carr U 99 2.14 (1.51–3.05)* 1.49 (0.91–2.45) 1.51 (0.89–2.55) 1.16 (0.67–2.01)
  >500 Carr U 21 3.32 (1.68–6.59)* 1.98 (0.94–4.15) 1.93 (0.83–4.45) 1.56 (0.69–3.53)
d-ROMs Increase per 1 SDe 322 1.41 (1.22–1.63)* 1.26 (1.08–1.47)* 1.27 (1.07–1.51)* 1.15 (0.96–1.37)
TTL Decrease per 1 SDf 322 1.23 (1.07–1.42)* 1.27 (1.02–1.60)* 1.19 (0.94–1.48) 1.15 (0.93–1.43)
  1. *Statistically significant (P <0.05)
  2. aAdjusted for age and sex in the ESTHER cohort, whereas this was not necessary for the HAPIEE cohorts because cases were individually matched to two controls by age and sex and analysed in stratified analysis in which the strata consist of the collection of matched sets. In addition, the other oxidative stress marker (i.e. TTL or d-ROMs) was included in this model
  3. bVariables of model 1 and education, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, and vigorous physical activity
  4. c Variables of model 2 and total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, renal impairment, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, history of stroke, and history of cancer
  5. dVariables of model 3 and CRP
  6. e1 SD of d-ROMs levels equal 81.1, 89.6, 70.5, and 71.9 Carr U in the HAPIEE Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, and ESTHER studies, respectively
  7. f1 SD of TTL equals 79.5, 69.1, 74.1, and 75.3 μmol/L in the HAPIEE Poland, Czech Republic, Lithuania, and ESTHER studies, respectively
  8. gMeta-analyses without the ESTHER study because no events were observed in this category in this study
  9. CVD, Cardiovascular disease; CI, Confidence interval; d-ROMs, Derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites; ncases, Incident case numbers; Ref, Reference category; SD, Standard deviation; TTL, Total thiol levels