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Table 2 Patient and parasitological characteristics of 32 culture-adapted isolates and their association with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine treatment outcome at day 42 in Cambodian patients, Cambodia (2012 retrospective study)

From: Plasmodium falciparum dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine failures in Cambodia are associated with mutant K13 parasites presenting high survival rates in novel piperaquine in vitro assays: retrospective and prospective investigations

Risk factors   All patients n = 32 Non-recrudescent patients n = 21 Recrudescent patients n = 11 P value
Patient      
Age, years (median, IQR)   19 (16.5–23) 19 (17.2–22.2) 19 (14.2–23.5) 0.67*
Sex, male (n, %)   21 (66 %) 13 (62 %) 8 (73 %) 0.70**
Weight, kg (median, IQR)   49.5 (41.5–55.0) 50 (42.7–55.2) 45.0 (40.2–54.7) 0.49*
Axillary temperature, °C (median, IQR) 38.5 (38.1–39.5) 38.5 (38.4–39.5) 38.5 (38.1–39.4) 0.87*
Dihydroartemisinin dose, mg/kg/day (median, IQR) 2.4 (2.2–2.7) 2.4 (2.2–2.6) 2.4 (2.2–2.7) 0.53*
Piperaquine dose, mg/kg/day (median, IQR) 19.2 (17.5–21.3) 18.8 (17.4–21.0) 19.4 (17.6–21.7) 0.47*
Target dose ≥2/16 mg/kg/d DHA/PPQ (n, %) 29 (91 %) 18 (86 %) 11 (100 %) 0.53**
Day 7 plasma piperaquine concentration, ng/mL (median, IQR) 41.8 (31.6–58.5) 40.1 (30.4–56.7) 47.5 (32.7–60.4) 0.53*
Day 3 parasite positive (n, %)   10 (31 %) 6 (29 %) 4 (36 %) 0.70**
Parasite      
Day 0 N° parasites per μL (median, IQR) 15,879 (5,961–64,291) 13,936 (6,960–47,097) 28,455 (5,250–81,063) 0.59*
Presence of K13 C580Y allele (n, %) 32 (100 %) 21 (100 %) 11 (100 %) 1**
Pfmdr1 copy number (median, range) 1 (1–3) 1 (1–3) 1 (1) 0.11*
Chloroquine IC50 at D0 (nM) Interpretable IC50 (n, %) 31 (97 %) 20 (95 %) 11 (100 %) 1**
median, IQR 183 (94–308) 199 (72–306) 150 (126–389) 0.87*
Piperaquine IC50 at D0 (nM) Interpretable IC50 (n, %) 12 (37 %) 10 (48 %) 2 (18 %) 0.14**
median, IQR 42.9 (22.4–52.7) 40.3 (7.6–52.1) 55.6 0.39*
Piperaquine IC90 at D0 (nM) Interpretable IC90 (n, %) 12 (37 %) 10 (48 %) 2 (18 %) 0.14**
median, IQR 81.7 (58.1–119.8) 72.2 (54.3–96.0) 132.6 0.06*
Mefloquine IC50 at D0 (nM) median, IQR 42.9 (22.4–52.7) 40.3 (7.6–52.1) 55.6 0.39*
median, IQR 24.4 (18.4–34.3) 32.2 (19.4–39.8) 19.7 (15.5–22.2) 0.03*,***
DHA IC50 at D0 (nM) Interpretable IC50 (n, %) 31 (97 %) 20 (95 %) 11 (100 %) 1**
median, IQR 0.86 (0.61–1.58) 0.88 (0.63–1.86) 0.83 (0.61–1.02) 0.30*
Survival rate (RSA0–3h) (n, %) Interpretable (n, %) 32 (100 %) 21 (100 %) 11 (100 %) 1**
median, IQR 13.2 (9.9–18.1) 12.3 (10.0–15.2) 15.2 (8.1–20.9) 0.54*
  1. *Calculated by the Mann-Whitney U test
  2. **Calculated by Fisher exact test
  3. ***Significant P values