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Table 2 Post-marketing withdrawal of medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions in different continents

From: Post-marketing withdrawal of 462 medicinal products because of adverse drug reactions: a systematic review of the world literature

Continent No. of countries Total population (millions) No. of withdrawn products Rate of withdrawals/million population Rates of withdrawal/country RR of withdrawal per country versus Africa (95 % CI)a a P value versus Africa
Africa 54 1111 63 0.06 1.17
Asia 46 4427 150 0.03 3.26 1.42 (1.18–1.71) 0.001
Australasia & Oceania 11 30 32 1.07 2.91 1.38 (1.08–1.76) 0.045
Europe 50 742.5 309 0.42 6.18 1.60 (1.34–1.90) <0.0005
N. America 23 528.7 134 0.25 5.83 1.59 ( 1.32–1.90) <0.0005
S. America 12 387.5 65 0.17 5.42 1.57 (1.29–1.90) <0.0005
  1. aThe P values have been corrected for multiple tests using the Bonferroni method. The relative rates of withdrawal are calculated based on the assumption that if a medicinal product was withdrawn in one country, it should also have been withdrawn in all countries in that continent. The data for total populations are obtained from the 2013 World Population Data Sheet (http://www.prb.org/pdf13/2013-WPDS-infographic_MED.pdf). This analysis excludes 43 medicinal products withdrawn worldwide