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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants without diabetes mellitus and number of events during follow-up of included cohort studies

From: HbA1c levels in non-diabetic older adults – No J-shaped associations with primary cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjustment for confounders in a meta-analysis of individual participant data from six cohort studies

Baseline characteristic Unit ESTHER SHIP ELSA Tromsø KORA NHANES
Baseline years for this analysis   2000–2002 1997–2001 2004–2005 1994–1995 1999–2001 1988–1994
Total sample size   7,982 1,777 5,262 6,045 1,850 5,778
 Age Years 61.8 (6.6) 63.4 (8.3) 65.8 (9.7) 61.6 (7.0) 61.7 (7.1) 67.9 (11.0)
  Age ≥65 years % 2,481 (31.1) 733 (41.3) 2,410 (45.8) 1,958 (32.4) 645 (34.9) 3,157 (54.6)
 Male sex % 3,476 (43.6) 905 (50.9) 2,334 (44.4) 2,550 (42.2) 929 (50.2) 2,774 (48.0)
 Race/ethnicity        
  Non-Hispanic white % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,428 (60.3)
  Non-Hispanic black % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,088 (18.8)
  Mexican-American % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 997 (17.3)
  Other % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 211 (3.7)
 School education        
  ≤9 years % 5,743 (73.5) 975 (55.2) 968 (19.0) 3,228 (53.8) 322 (17.5) 2,238 (39.1)
  10–12 years % 1,671 (21.4) 443 (25.1) 3,137 (61.6) 1,773 (29.5) 1,156 (62.7) 2,147 (37.5)
  ≥13 years % 398 (5.1) 348 (19.7) 992 (19.5) 1,005 (16.7) 367 (19.9) 1,343 (23.5)
 BMI kg/m2 27.3 (4.2) 28.2 (4.4) 27.5 (4.6) 25.9 (3.8) 28.1 (4.2) 26.8 (5.2)
 BMI category        
  Underweight % 146 (1.8) 29 (1.6) 141 (2.8) 239 (4.0) 21 (1.1) 361 (6.3)
  Optimal weight % 2,249 (28.2) 389 (21.9) 1,356 (26.9) 2,360 (39.1) 389 (21.2) 1,835 (31.9)
  Overweight % 3,816 (47.9) 832 (46.9) 2,247 (44.6) 2,603 (43.2) 907 (49.3) 2,251 (39.2)
  Obese % 1.763 (22.1) 525 (29.6) 1,296 (25.7) 831 (13.8) 522 (28.4) 1,303 (22.7)
 Smoking        
  Never % 3,974 (51.1) 942 (54.6) 2,390 (45.8) 1,949 (32.3) 969 (53.4) 2,583 (44.7)
  Former % 2,479 (31.9) 486 (28.2) 1,922 (36.8) 2,184 (36.2) 568 (31.3) 1,956 (33.9)
  Current % 1,319 (17.0) 298 (17.3) 905 (17.4) 1,907 (31.6) 279 (15.4) 1,239 (21.4)
 Relative alcohol consumption        
  Abstainer or low % 3,851 (53.2) 848 (50.5) 2,537 (50.1) 2,394 (51.7) 1,005 (54.6) 3,410 (64.2)
  Moderate % 2,650 (36.6) 655 (39.0) 2,024 (39.9) 1,745 (37.7) 638 (34.6) 1,325 (24.9)
  High % 741 (10.2) 177 (10.5) 508 (10.0) 490 (10.6) 199 (10.8) 580 (10.9)
 Vigorous physical activity % 3,452 (43.4) 905 (51.5) 2,232 (42.4) 2,043 (34.2) 819 (44.5) 2,204 (38.2)
 Total cholesterol mmol/L 5.7 (1.3) 6.1 (1.2) 6.0 (1.2) 6.8 (1.3) 6.3 (1.1) 5.7 (1.1)
 HDL cholesterol mmol/L 1.4 (0.4) 1.5 (0.4) 1.5 (0.4) 1.6 (0.4) 1.5 (0.4) 1.4 (0.4)
 Subclinical inflammation % 2,786 (35.5) 492 (28.8) 1,827 (35.0) 1,079 (20.8) 520 (28.4) 2,187 (38.9)
 Serum creatinine nmol/L 79.8 (28.1) 87.1 (18.5) N/A 67.6 (16.0) 76.5 (21.3) 101.6 (29.4)
 Albuminuria % 760 (9.6) 331 (21.0) N/A 675 (12.8) N/A 1,166 (22.0)
 Hemoglobin g/dL N/A 13.6 (1.2) 14.3 (1.4) 14.1 (1.1) 14.4 (1.2) 13.9 (1.4)
 Biomarkers of iron deficiency        
  Ferritin μg/L N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 157 (168)
  Transferrin saturation % N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 25.2 (10.6)
  Erythrocyte protoporphyrin μmol/L N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.95 (0.56)
 Hypertension        
  No hypertension % 3,270 (41.0) 807 (45.5) 2,526 (48.0) 2,584 (42.8) 849 (46.1) 2,553 (44.2)
  Known hypertension or systolic blood pressure ≥140 to <160 mmHg % 3,915 (49.1) 593 (33.4) 2,313 (44.0) 2,044 (33.8) 778 (42.2) 2,545 (44.1)
  Systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg % 796 (10.0) 375 (21.1) 423 (8.0) 1,417 (23.4) 216 (11.7) 679 (11.8)
 History of MI or stroke % 511 (6.5) 140 (7.9) 398 (7.6) 438 (7.3) 97 (5.2) 738 (12.8)
 Biomarkers of liver function        
  GGT U/L N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 31.6 (45.5)
  AST U/L N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 21.9 (11.8)
  ALT U/L N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 14.7 (10.6)
 HbA1c % 5.5 (0.4) 5.4 (0.5) 5.4 (0.3) 5.4 (0.4) 5.6 (0.3) 5.5 (0.5)
  Very low (<5.0 % (<31 mmol/mol)) % 476 (6.0) 336 (18.9) 345 (6.6) 626 (10.4) 63 (3.4) 678 (11.7)
  Low (5.0 to <5.5 % (31 to <37 mmol/mol)) % 2,747 (34.4) 546 (30.7) 2,344 (44.6) 2,719 (45.0) 603 (32.6) 1,994 (34.5)
  Intermediate (5.5 to <6.0 % (37 to <42 mmol/mol)) % 3,726 (46.7) 583 (32.8) 2,201 (41.8) 2,323 (38.4) 937 (50.7) 2,272 (39.3)
  Increased (6.0 to <6.5 % (42 to <48 mmol/mol)) % 1,033 (12.9) 312 (17.6) 372 (7.1) 377 (6.2) 247 (13.4) 834 (14.4)
Follow-up        
 All-cause mortality        
  Total sample size   7,981 1,777 5,253 6,045 1,850 5,775
  Cases (%)   1,069 (13.4) 298 (16.8) 645 (12.3) 1,704 (28.2) 180 (9.7) 2,873 (49.8)
  Mean FUP (SD) Years 11.1 (2.1) 9.4 (2.1) 7.0 (1.3) 14.0 (3.8) 8.5 (1.3) 11.4 (4.9)
 Cardiovascular mortality        
  Total sample size   7,943 1,761 5,113 5,987 1,843 5,721
  Cases (%)   263 (3.3) 90 (5.1) 174 (3.0) 707 (11.8) 69 (3.7) 1,345 (23.5)
  Mean FUP (SD) Years 11.1 (2.0) 9.4 (2.1) 7.0 (1.3) 14.1 (3.8) 8.6 (1.3) 11.4 (4.9)
 Cardiovascular events        
  Total sample size   7,233 1,637 4,462 5,602 1,556 N/A
  Cases (%)   595 (8.2) 65 (4.0) 315 (7.1) 1,386 (24.7) 132 (8.5) N/A
  Mean FUP (SD) Years 7.1 (2.3) 9.5 (2.0) 5.3 (1.4) 12.6 (4.8) 8.2 (1.7) N/A
  1. Unless indicated otherwise, the table shows proportions (%) for categorical and means (SD) for continuous variables. Numbers shown were drawn from the unimputed data set. Therefore, numbers do not always add up to the total because of missing values (see Additional file 1: Table S2 for number of missing values for each variable). ALT, alanine transferase; AST, aspartate transferase; BMI, body mass index; FUP, follow-up; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MI, myocardial infarction; N/A, not assessed; SD, standard deviation