Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Baseline characteristics of subjects without diabetes mellitus by increased and low HbA1c levels and multivariable adjusted odds ratios for associations of characteristics with increased HbA1c levels. Pooled data from six cohort studies

From: HbA1c levels in non-diabetic older adults – No J-shaped associations with primary cardiovascular events, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after adjustment for confounders in a meta-analysis of individual participant data from six cohort studies

Characteristic Unit Weighted mean or proportion (%) (95 % CI) Pooled odds ratio (95 % CI)
Increased HbA1c Low HbA1c
(6.0 to <6.5 %) (5.0 to <5.5 %)
(42 to <48 mmol/mol) (31 to <37 mmol/mol) (reference group)
Age Years 64.5 (64.2–64.7) 62.2 (62.1–62.4) 1.41 (1.32; 1.49) per 10 years
Male sex % 47.0 (45.2–48.7) 45.0 (44.1–46.0) 0.99 (0.88; 1.11)
Race/ethnicityb     
 Non-Hispanic white % 44.0 70.0 Ref
 Non-Hispanic black % 33.8 11.8 5.92 (4.56; 7.68)
 Mexican-American % 17.8 15.1 2.11 (1.62; 2.77)
 Other % 4.4 3.0 2.69 (1.69; 4.28)
School education     
 ≤9 years % 55.6 (53.7–57.5) 45.9 (44.9–46.9) Ref
 10–12 years % 32.7 (30.9–34.4) 39.1 (38.1–40.0) 0.97 (0.90; 1.04)
 ≥13 years % 14.6 (13.3–16.0) 19.0 (18.3–19.8) 0.99 (0.90; 1.08)
BMI category     
 Underweight or low weight % 3.2 (2.5–3.9) 3.9 (3.5–4.3) 0.81 (0.66; 0.99)
 Optimal weight % 20.3 (18.9–21.8) 34.6 (33.7–35.5) Ref
 Overweight % 45.3 (43.5–47.0) 43.6 (42.7–44.6) 1.02 (0.92; 1.14)
 Obese % 32.4 (30.8–34.1) 19.2 (18.5–20.0) 1.61 (1.43; 1.81)
Smoking     
 Never % 44.5 (42.7–46.3) 45.8 (44.8–46.7) Ref
 Former % 31.9 (30.2–33.5) 34.8 (33.9–35.7) 1.03 (0.92; 1.16)
 Current % 24.1 (22.6–25.7) 20.0 (19.5–21.1) 1.73 (1.53; 1.96)
Relative alcohol consumption     
 Abstainer or low % 62.9 (61.1–64.7) 50.9 (49.9–51.9) Ref
 Moderate % 30.5 (28.8–32.2) 37.4 (36.4–38.3) 1.05 (0.96; 1.13)
 High % 6.9 (6.0–7.9) 12.0 (11.4–12.7) 0.74 (0.66; 0.83)
Vigorous physical activity % 36.0 (34.3–37.7) 42.3 (41.4–43.3) 0.93 (0.85; 1.02)
Total cholesterol mmol/L 6.08 (6.03–6.12) 6.03 (6.01–6.05) 1.18 (1.14; 1.22) per 1 mmol/L
HDL cholesterol mmol/L 1.36 (1.34–1.37) 1.52 (1.51–1.53) 0.62 (0.54; 0.71) per 1 mmol/L
Subclinical inflammation % 44.7 (42.9–46.4) 28.1 (27.2–29.0) 1.47 (1.34; 1.61)
Serum creatinine nmol/L 85.4 (84.5–86.3) 76.4 (76.0–76.8) 1.04 (1.00; 1.08) a per 10 nmol/L
Albuminuria % 21.2 (19.6–23.0) 13.3 (12.5–14.1) 1.27 (1.11; 1.45)
Hemoglobin g/dL 13.98 (13.92–14.04) 14.16 (14.14–14.19) 0.86 (0.77; 0.96) a per 1 g/dL
Biomarkers of iron deficiencyb     
 Ferritin μg/L 165 (170) 152 (148) 0.97 (0.91; 1.03) per 100 μg/L
 Transferrin saturation % 23.8 (10.1) 26.0 (10.6) 0.85 (0.77; 0.95) per 10 %
 Erythrocyte protoporphyrin μmol/L 0.94 (0.44) 0.93 (0.42) 1.02 (0.91; 1.15) per 0.5 μmol/L
Hypertension     
 No hypertension % 34.7 (33.1–36.4) 47.0 (46.1–48.0) Ref
 Known hypertension or systolic blood pressure ≥140 to <160 mmHg % 49.5 (47.8–51.3) 40.2 (39.3–41.1) 1.08 (1.01; 1.15)
 Systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg % 17.1 (15.8–18.5) 14.0 (13.4–14.7) 1.10 (1.01; 1.20)
History of MI or stroke % 11.8 (10.7–13.0) 7.1 (6.6–7.6) 1.32 (1.03; 1.70) a
Biomarkers of liver functionb     
 GGT U/L 33.5 (36.0) 29.9 (40.3) 1.02 (0.99; 1.05) per 10 U/L
 AST U/L 21.5 (13.1) 22.0 (11.9) 0.81 (0.70; 0.94) per 10 U/L
 ALT U/L 15.0 (11.2) 14.6 (11.3) 1.25 (1.08; 1.45) per 10 U/L
  1. The table shows pooled means or proportions of baseline characteristics in the HbA1c categories and additionally the results of a multivariable logistic regression model including all variables of the table as explanatory variables for increased HbA1c (reference: low HbA1c). Bold indicates statistically significant difference (p <0.05). aRandom effects model reported because of statistically significant heterogeneity; bassessed in NHANES, only. ALT, alanine transferase; AST, aspartate transferase; BMI, body mass index; GGT, gamma-glutamyl transferase; CI, confidence interval; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; MI, myocardial infarction