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Table 3 Metabolomics studies

From: Diagnostic ‘omics’ for active tuberculosis

Study Sample Data access Country Classes Number Case definition Independent test setc Validation setd Evaluation of accuracye Signature size Metabolite biomarkers identified
HIV status Prior TB treatmenta TB location Microbiologically provenb TST IGRA
Zhou et al., 2015 [109] Plasma N China TB ?    P Y    N N N N/Af Y
HC ?     
OD 110     
Lau et al., 2015 [80] Plasma Y Hong Kong TB 37   P Y    N N Y 2 Y
HC 30       
OD 30       
Feng et al., 2015 [110] Serum N China TB 120    P U    N N Y 4 Y
HC 105       
OD 146       
Mason et al., 2015 [111] CSF N South Africa,
The Netherlands
EP-TB 17   EP, P Y    N N N N/Af Y
OD 49      
Das et al., 2015 [82] Urine N India TB 21 P Y    N N Y 42 Y
OD 21     
Frediani et al., 2014 [86] Plasma N Georgia TB 17   ≤7d P Y    N N N N/Af Y
HC 17       
Mahapatra et al., 2014 [89] Urine N Uganda,
South Africa
TB 87 P Y    N N Y 6 Y
Treated 59 1 m     
Treated 20 2 m     
Treated 54 6 m     
Zhou et al., 2013 [112] Serum N China TB 38    P, EP Y    N N N N/Af Y
HC 39     
Che et al., 2013 [113] Serum N China TB 136 P, EP U    Y N Y 1 Y
Treated 6 2 m     
HC 130      
Du Preez and Loots 2013 [87] Sputum N South Africa TB 34    P Y    N N N N/Af Y
OD 61       
Weiner et al., 2012 [81] Serum N South Africa TB 44 P Y    N N Y 20 Y
LTBI 46     +  
HC 46     
Kolk et al., 2012 [85] Breath N South Africa TB 71   + P Y    Y N Y 7 Y
OD 100       
Banday et al., 2011 [84] Urine N India TB 117   P Y    Y N Y 5 Y
Treated 20   ≤7 m     
LTBI 19      +  
HC 37      
OD 12       
Phillips et al., 2010 [114] Breath N US, Philippines,
TB g 226   P U    N N Y 10 Y
Phillips et al., 2007 [83] Breath N US TB 23    P Y +/–   N N Y 130 Y
LTBI 19      +  
OD 59 +/–     +/–  
  1. CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, TB Active tuberculosis, LTBI Latent TB infection, HC Healthy controls, OD Other diseases, EP Extrapulmonary, P Pulmonary, Y Yes, N No
  2. anumber of days (d) or months (m) on treatment at time of sampling
  3. bU if unclear whether all TB cases were microbiologically confirmed, e.g. if diagnosis was based on Mtb culture or chest X-ray or TB symptoms, or if microbiologically proven and unproven TB cases were grouped together
  4. cnever involved in training the model (nested, k-fold or leave-one-out cross-validation (without test) are not considered to make use of an independent test set)
  5. dnew, independent set of samples, e.g. from different ethnic background or geographic location
  6. epredictive ability of the (O)PLS-DA model was not considered a valid accuracy evaluation
  7. fDifferentially expressed metabolites were identified but suitability as biomarkers was not assessed
  8. gDifferent diagnostic criteria were compared but class distribution was not clear