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Table 1 Univariate logistic regression of the association between clinician caseload and treatment outcome

From: Towards better guidance on caseload thresholds to promote positive tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a cohort study

Main exposure/potential confounders/a priori confounders Overall cohort Missing 12-month outcome Unfavourable 12-month outcome Univariate regressiona
No. Col. % No. Row % No. Row % OR (95 % CI)
Overall 48,838 100.0 1,468 3.0 6,777 13.9
Clinician caseloadb        
  10+ 24,092 49.3 401 1.7 3,057 12.7 P <0.001
  <10 16,803 34.4 767 4.6 2,518 15.0 1.20 (1.10–1.30)
  Missing 7,943 16.3 300 3.8 1,202 15.1
Notification date        
  Post-toolkit 39,264 80.4 920 2.3 5,283 13.5 P <0.001
  Pre-toolkit 9,574 19.6 548 5.7 1,494 15.6 1.28 (1.19–1.38)
  Missing 0 0.0 0 0
Location        
  Outside London 28,212 57.8 1,338 4.7 4,069 14.4 P <0.001
  Inside London 20,618 42.2 130 0.6 2,704 13.1 0.78 (0.70–0.86)
  Missing 8 0.0 0 0.0 4 50.0
Sex        
  Male 26,910 55.1 829 3.1 4,051 15.1 P <0.001
  Female 21,777 44.6 630 2.9 2,700 12.4 0.80 (0.76–0.85)
  Missing 151 0.3 9 6.0 26 17.2
Age, years        
  <20 4,987 10.2 128 2.6 477 9.6 0.66 (0.58-0.75)
  20–39 23,987 49.1 677 2.8 3,334 13.9 P <0.001
  40–64 13,534 27.7 400 3.0 1,749 12.9 0.91 (0.85–0.97)
  65+ 6,325 13.0 263 4.2 1,215 19.2 1.42 (1.31–1.54)
  Missing 5 0.0 0 0.0 2 40.0
Ethnic group        
  White 9,313 19.1 401 4.3 1,580 17.0 P <0.001
  Black African 9,666 19.8 243 2.5 1,176 12.2 0.67 (0.61–0.74)
  Black other 1,473 3.0 20 1.4 213 14.5 0.85 (0.71–1.01)
  Indian subcontinent 21,082 43.2 486 2.3 2,753 13.1 0.74 (0.68–0.80)
  Other 5,662 11.6 131 2.3 746 13.2 0.74 (0.67–0.83)
  Missing 1,642 3.4 187 11.4 309 18.8
UK born        
  No 33,946 69.5 777 2.3 4,517 13.3 P <0.001
  Yes 11,946 24.5 397 3.3 1,742 14.6 1.12 (1.05–1.20)
  Missing 2,946 6.0 294 10.0 518 17.6
Site of diseasec        
  Extrapulmonary only 21,681 44.4 543 2.5 2,662 12.3 P <0.001
  Pulmonary smear negative/unknown 17,483 35.8 578 3.3 2,441 14.0 1.18 (1.10–1.26)
  Pulmonary smear positive 9,399 19.2 313 3.3 1,623 17.3 1.53 (1.41–1.65)
  Missing 275 0.6 34 12.4 51 18.5
Drug sensitivity        
  Sensitive 26,955 55.2 782 2.9 3,607 13.4 P <0.001
  Resistant to INH, EMB, or PZA 1,744 3.6 53 3.0 756 43.3 5.63 (5.01–6.32)
  Not linked to a culture 19,865 40.7 627 3.2 2,364 11.9 0.86 (0.80–0.91)
  Missing 274 0.6 6 2.2 50 18.2
Previous diagnosis        
  No 39,767 81.4 1,006 2.5 5,227 13.1 P <0.001
  Yes 2,941 6.0 96 3.3 494 16.8 1.35 (1.20–1.51)
  Missing 6,130 12.6 366 6.0 1,056 17.2
Social risk factorsd        
  No or unknown 47,048 96.3 1,394 3.0 6,352 13.5 P <0.001
  One or more previous 829 1.7 19 2.3 144 17.4 1.42 (1.17–1.73)
  One or more current 961 2.0 55 5.7 281 29.2 2.75 (2.34–3.23)
Shared clinical management        
  No or unknown 48,562 99.4 1,457 3.0 6,721 13.8 P = 0.02
  Yes 276 0.6 11 4.0 56 20.3 1.45 (1.06–1.98)
  1. Descriptive analysis and univariate random effects logistic regression of the association between clinician caseload and treatment outcome, England, 2006–2012. All regression models adjusted for clustering by clinician
  2. aOdds of an unfavourable versus a good or neutral treatment outcome; records missing an outcome excluded
  3. bMean caseload per clinician over the preceding 3 years
  4. cPulmonary site could be with or without extrapulmonary disease
  5. dSocial risk factors a composite variable of homelessness, imprisonment, drug misuse and alcohol abuse; current risks override previous risks
  6. CI Confidence interval, Col. Column, EMB Ethambutol, INH Isoniazid, OR Cluster-specific odds ratio, P, P value, PZA Pyrazinamide