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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable logistic regression of the association between hospital caseload and treatment outcome

From: Towards better guidance on caseload thresholds to promote positive tuberculosis treatment outcomes: a cohort study

Main exposure/potential confounders/a priori confounders Univariate regressiona Multivariable regressiona
OR (95 % CI) OR (95 % CI)
Hospital caseloadb
  114+ P <0.001 e
  73–113 1.13 (1.00–1.29)  
  27–72 1.06 (0.91–1.24)  
  <27 1.32 (1.13–1.55)  
Notification date
  Post-toolkit P <0.001 P <0.001
  Pre-toolkit 1.25 (1.17–1.33) 1.30 (1.21–1.40)
Location
  Outside London P <0.001 P = 0.16
  Inside London 0.81 (0.71–0.93) 0.90 (0.77–1.04)
Sex
  Male P <0.001 P <0.001
  Female 0.79 (0.75–0.84) 0.85 (0.80–0.90)
Age, years
  <20 0.67 (0.60–0.75) 0.70 (0.63–0.79)
  20–39 P <0.001 P <0.001
  40–64 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.92 (0.85–0.98)
  65+ 1.48 (1.37–1.59) 1.44 (1.32–1.57)
Ethnic group
  White P <0.001 e
  Black African 0.68 (0.63–0.75)  
  Black other 0.88 (0.75–1.03)  
  Indian subcontinent 0.76 (0.71–0.82)  
  Other 0.74 (0.67–0.82)  
UK born
  No P <0.001 e
  Yes 1.10 (1.03–1.17)  
Site of diseasec
  Extrapulmonary only P <0.001
  Pulmonary smear negative/unknown 1.16 (1.09–1.23)  
  Pulmonary smear positive 1.52 (1.42–1.63)  
Drug sensitivity
  Sensitive P <0.001
  Resistant to INH, EMB, or PZA 5.40 (4.86–6.00)  
  Not linked to a culture 0.87 (0.82–0.92)  
Previous diagnosis
  No P <0.001
  Yes 1.32 (1.19–1.46)  
Social risk factorsd
  No or unknown P <0.001 P <0.001
  One or more previous 1.33 (1.11–1.60) 1.36 (1.12–1.66)
  One or more current 2.83 (2.44–3.28) 2.67 (2.28–3.13)
  1. Univariate and multivariable random effects logistic regression of the association between hospital caseload and treatment outcome, England, 2006–2012. All regression models adjusted for clustering by hospital; 42,995 cases in the multivariable model, dashed variables not retained
  2. aOdds of an unfavourable versus a good or neutral treatment outcome; records missing an outcome excluded
  3. bMean caseload per hospital over the preceding 3 years
  4. cPulmonary site could be with or without extrapulmonary disease
  5. dSocial risk factors a composite variable of homelessness, imprisonment, drug misuse, and alcohol abuse; current risks override previous risks
  6. eInteraction present between hospital caseload, ethnicity and UK born, see Table 5
  7. CI Confidence interval, EMB Ethambutol, INH Isoniazid, OR Cluster-specific odds ratio, p P-value, PZA Pyrazinamide