Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Effects of pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) and time-updated characteristics on the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) after ART initiation

From: Tuberculosis incidence is high in HIV-infected African children but is reduced by co-trimoxazole and time on antiretroviral therapy

  HR (unadjusted) 95 % CI P aHR (adjusted) 95 % CI P
Age (at ART initiation)
  < 3 years 1.0   1.0  
  ≥ 3 years 0.63 (0.40–1.02) 0.06 0.54 (0.31–0.96) 0.04
Sex
 Male 1.0   1.0  
 Female 1.51 (0.94–2.45) 0.09 1.88 (1.15–3.06) 0.01
Height-for-age Z score
 (time-updated) 0.65 (0.55–0.78) <0.001 0.93 (0.73–1.20) 0.61
Weight-for-age Z score
 (time-updated) 0.62 (0.54–0.71) <0.001 0.70 (0.56–0.86) 0.001
WHO stage (pre-ART)
 1 or 2 1.0   1.0  
 3 or 4 1.82 (1.05–3.16) 0.03 1.32 (0.72–2.40) 0.37
CD4 %
 (time-updated) 0.94 (0.92–0.97) <0.001 0.94 (0.91–0.97) <0.001
Initial ART
 Included NVP 1.0   1.0  
 Did not include NVP 0.51 (0.29–0.92) 0.02 0.95 (0.47–1.90) 0.87
Randomization
 A (3TC/ABC/NNRTI throughout) 1.0   1.0  
 B (3TC/ABC/NNRTI throughout, ZDV until week 36) 0.75 (0.44–1.29) 0.31 0.83 (0.48–1.43) 0.50
 C (3TC/ABC/ZDV throughout, NNRTI until week 36) 0.48 (0.26–0.89) 0.02 0.43 (0.22–0.81) 0.01
  1. Note: final model includes all factors with P <0.1 in univariable analyses (Table 1)
  2. 3TC Lamivudine, ABC Abacavir, aHR Adjusted hazard ratio, HR Hazard ratio, NNRTI Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, NVP Nevirapine, ZDV Zidovudine