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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of prostate cancer cases and controls in the ProtecT study

From: Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study in a population-based cohort

  Cases Controls n P value
Total, n 1,136 1,791 2,927  
Age, years 62.2 ± 5.1 61.6 ± 5.2 2,927 0.003
PSA, ng/mL 8.5 ± 15.4 1.1 ± 1.3 2,925 <0.001
Gleason grade, % (<7/≥7) 70.0/30.0 n/a 1,135  
TNM stage, % (localized/advanced) 88.4/11.6 n/a 1,136  
BPH, % (no/yes)a 92.7/7.3 89.0/11.0 1,363 0.02
BMI, kg/m2 27.0 ± 3.7 27.5 ± 4.1 1,973 0.01
Height, cm 176.4 ± 7.0 175.9 ± 6.9 2,078 0.2
Weight, kg 84.5 ± 13.0 85.9 ± 14.6 2,677 0.02
leg length, cm 76.7 ± 4.8 76.5 ± 4.6 2,055 0.3
Birthweight, g 3,437.2 ± 744.9 3,476.1 ± 663.4 939 0.4
Family history, % (no/yes)b 92.7/7.3 95.0/5.0 2,908 0.01
Diabetes, % (no/yes)c 92.8/7.2 91.1/8.9 1,895 0.2
IGF-I, ng/mL 156.1 ± 55.8 163.2 ± 57.0 1,756 0.01
IGF-II, ng/mL 862.1 ± 323.6 733.7 ± 265.3 1,720 <0.001
IGFBP-2, ng/mL 731.5 ± 426.0 726.2 ± 444.7 1,745 0.5d
IGFBP-3, ng/mL 4,673.6 ± 1,041.9 4,370.8 ± 1,055.7 1,711 <0.001
IGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratioe 0.12 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.06 1,711 <0.001d
  1. Continuous variables: mean ± SD
  2. Two-sided t-tests and χ2 tests were used to analyze continuous and categorical variables, respectively
  3. PSA Prostate-specific antigen, BMI Body mass index, BPH Benign prostatic hyperplasia, IGF Insulin-like growth factor, IGFBP Insulin-like growth factor binding protein
  4. an cases = 682, n controls = 681
  5. bn cases = 1,131, n controls = 1,777
  6. cn cases = 735, n controls = 1,160
  7. d P value obtained from analysis of natural log transformed variable
  8. eIGF-I:IGFBP-3 molar ratio = 0.13*[IGF-I]:0.036*[IGFBP-3]