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Table 3 Risk factors for gametocyte prevalence at enrolment

From: Gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria following treatment with artemisinin combination therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

  Africa Asia South America
Parameter Nobs/Npos (%) OR (95 % CI) P value Nobs/Npos (%) OR (95 % CI) P value Nobs/Npos (%) OR (95 % CI) P value
Univariable model          
Age          
  < 1 year 2492/403 (16.2) 2.506 (1.978–3.174) <0.001 60/12 (20.0) 2.240 (1.124–4.460) 0.022 0/0   
 1–4 years 20419/2799 (13.7) 2.558 (2.082–3.144) <0.001 1374/297 (21.6) 2.095 (1.777–2.469) <0.001 0/0   
 5–11 years 6715/495 (7.4) 1.523 (1.245–1.864) <0.001 3587/563 (15.7) 1.535 (1.354–1.740) <0.001 111/19 (17.1) 0.834 (0.485–1.432) 0.510
 12+ years 4571/179 (3.9)   8438/977 (11.6)   803/139 (17.3)  
Age (years) 34197/3876 (11.3) 0.961 (0.952–0.971) <0.001 13459/1849 (13.7) 0.975 (0.971–0.980) <0.001 914/158 (17.3) 0.995 (0.983–1.008) 0.453
Derived haemoglobin (g/dL) 26693/3394 (12.7) 0.785 (0.767–0.803) <0.001 10854/1433 (13.2) 0.664 (0.645–0.683) <0.001 606/120 (19.8) 0.600 (0.523–0.688) <0.001
Anaemia          
 Yes 13441/2322 (17.3) 2.062 (1.888–2.253) <0.001 2871/795 (27.7) 4.846 (4.258–5.516) <0.001 48/22 (45.8) 3.972 (2.162–7.297) <0.001
 No 13252/1072 (8.1) Reference   7983/638 (8.0) Reference   558/98 (17.6) Reference  
Fever          
 Yes 21115/1910 (9.1) 0.583 (0.538–0.631) <0.001 5816/566 (9.7) 0.738 (0.649–0.839) <0.001 438/54 (12.3) 0.529 (0.367–0.762) 0.001
 No 12925/1950 (15.1) Reference   5107/730 (14.3) Reference   476/105 (22.1) Reference  
Sex          
 Female 16119/1782 (11.1) 0.976 (0.908–1.048) 0.501 5205/754 (14.5) 1.083 (0.973–1.206) 0.145 350/52 (14.9) 0.756 (0.525–1.089) 0.133
 Male 17128/1963 (11.5) Reference   7952/1085 (13.6) Reference   566/107 (18.9) Reference  
Log10 Parasitaemia (/μL) 34212/3879 (11.3) 0.590 (0.554–0.629) <0.001 13442/1833 (13.6) 0.726 (0.677–0.779) <0.001 914/158 (17.3) 0.333 (0.212–0.524) <0.001
Hyperparasitaemia          
 Yes 3217/160 (5.0) 0.389 (0.328–0.460) <0.001 1892/289 (15.3) 0.441 (0.338–0.575) <0.001 0/0   
 No 30995/3719 (12.0) Reference   12568/1743 (13.9) Reference   912/158 (17.3)   
Mixed infection          
 Yes     892/106 (11.9) 1.112 (0.880–1.404) 0.374    
 No     13496/1817 (13.5) Reference     
Weight-for-age z-score 21701/2996 (13.8) 0.932 (0.901–0.966) <0.001 1403/305 (21.7) 0.815 (0.723–0.919) 0.001 0/0   
Underweight          
 Yes 3904/651 (16.7) 1.234 (1.113–1.368) <0.001 517/144 (27.9) 1.404 (1.029–1.915) 0.032 0/0   
 No 17797/2345 (13.2) Reference   886/161 (18.2) Reference   0/0   
TIA          
 Low 9995/802 (8.0) 0.990 (0.674–1.454) 0.959 11799/1383 (11.7) 0.251 (0.074–0.850) 0.026 871/147 (16.9)   
 Moderate 10575/1069 (10.1) 1.074 (0.801–1.440) 0.631 1361/438 (32.2) Reference   0/0   
 High 13371/2000 (15.0) Reference   0/0    0/0   
Multivariable model 26669 / 3389 (12.7)    8919 / 929 (10.4)    605 /120 (19.8)   
Age (years)   0.984 (0.974–0.994) 0.001   0.988 (0.982–0.994) <0.001    
Derived haemoglobin (g/dL)   0.788 (0.770–0.807) <0.001   0.672 (0.648–0.697) <0.001   0.581 (0.502–0.672) <0.001
Log10 Parasitaemia (/μL)   0.617 (0.575–0.662) <0.001   0.735 (0.669–0.807) <0.001   0.330 (0.184–0.592) <0.001
Fever   0.633 (0.579–0.691) <0.001   0.811 (0.689–0.954) 0.011    
Sex (M)      1.252 (1.073–1.462) 0.004   2.144 (1.331–3.454) 0.002
  1. Logistic univariable and multivariable mixed effects analysis by region with presence of gametocytaemia at enrolment as dependent variable. Nobs, number of observations; Npos, number of positive observations; Weight-for-age z-score, calculated using “igrowup” package developed by WHO [41] in children < 5 years of age; Underweight, weight-for-age z-scores < –2; TIA, Transmission intensity areas; Derived haemoglobin, conversion from haematocrit: haemoglobin = (haematocrit–5.62)/2.60 [40]; Anaemia, haemoglobin < 10 g/dL; Fever, temperature > 37.5 °C; Hyperparasitaemia, parasitaemia > 100,000 parasites per μL