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Table 4 Factors associated with the development of gametocytaemia after enrolment in individuals without microscopically detected gametocytes before treatment with artemisinin combination therapy

From: Gametocyte carriage in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria following treatment with artemisinin combination therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data

Parameter Nobs Npos per Hazard ratio (95 % CI) P value
Univariable model      
ACTa      
 AS-MQ 3082 20 0.6 0.763 (0.392–1.484) 0.425
 DP 3855 93 2.4 2.746 (1.773–4.253) <0.001
 AS-AQ: FDC 2919 151 5.2 4.094 (2.540–6.600) <0.001
 AL 8532 97 1.1 Reference  
Agea      
  < 1 year 776 23 3.0 2.435 (1.268–4.676) 0.008
 1–4 years 7772 236 3.0 2.780 (1.698–4.552) <0.001
 5–11 years 4102 58 1.4 1.928 (1.225–3.035) 0.005
 12+ years 5735 44 0.8 Reference  
Age (years) 18385 361 2.0 0.965 (0.946–0.984) <0.001
Derived haemoglobin (g/dL) 14357 295 2.1 0.809 (0.758–0.862) <0.001
Anaemia      
 Yes 5505 183 3.3 1.824 (1.402–2.373) <0.001
 No 8852 112 1.3 Reference  
Fever      
 Yes 10569 173 1.6 0.594 (0.470–0.749) <0.001
 No 7244 173 2.4 Reference  
Sex      
 Female 8427 160 1.9 0.931 (0.754–1.149) 0.505
 Male 9658 196 2.0 Reference  
Hyperparasitaemia      
 Yes 1543 19 1.2 0.615 (0.384–0.984) 0.043
 No 16845 342 2.0 Reference  
Log10 parasitaemia (/μL) 18388 361 2.0 0.731 (0.619–0.864) <0.001
Weight-for-age score      
Underweightb 8341 257 3.1 0.825 (0.744–0.915) <0.001
 Yes 1418 80 5.6 1.768 (1.343–2.326) <0.001
 No 6923 177 2.6 Reference  
Region      
 Asia 3895 55 1.4 1.078 (0.356–3.263) 0.894
 South America 615 8 1.3 0.482 (0.035–6.564) 0.584
 Africa 13878 298 2.1 Reference  
TIAa      
 Low 8406 64 0.8 0.371 (0.159–0.866) 0.022
 Moderate 5120 129 2.5 0.746 (0.426–1.306) 0.305
 High 4449 161 3.6 Reference  
Multivariable model 14051 291 2.1   
ACT:      
 AS-MQ     0.566 ( 0.225–1.420) 0.225
 DP     2.029 (1.240–3.317) 0.005
 AS-AQ: FDC     4.014 (2.398–6.719) <0.001
 AL     Reference  
Age      
  < 1 year     1.707 ( 0.778–3.747) 0.269
 1–4 years     2.303 (1.208–4.392) 0.011
 5–11 years     1.418 (0.795–2.527) 0.237
 12+ years     Reference  
Derived haemoglobin (g/dL)     0.828 (0.774–0.886) <0.001
Fever     0.653 (0.503–0.848) 0.001
Log10 parasitaemia (/μL)     0.757 (0.624–0.917) 0.004
  1. Cox regression mixed effects model for time to gametocytaemia
  2. Nobs, Number of observations; Npos, Number of positive observations; Weight-for-age z-score, calculated using “igrowup” package developed by WHO [41] in children < 5 years of age; Underweight, weight-for-age z-scores < –2; TIA, Transmission intensity areas. a Proportional hazards assumption not satisfied; b In multivariable analysis: HR, 1.51; 95 % CI, 1.13–2.02; P = 0.005, after adjusting for covariates in the main model