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Table 3 Adverse events by treatment condition

From: Flexible, dual-form nicotine replacement therapy or varenicline in comparison with nicotine patch for smoking cessation: a randomized controlled trial

Adverse event Treatment group n (%)  
  NRT NRT+ VR P
Cardiovascular (e.g., palpitations, tachycardia, chest pain) 5 (2.0) 3 (1.2) 3 (1.2) 0.687
Digestive (e.g., indigestion, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, flatulence) 48 (19.6) 64 (26.1) 139 (56.3) <0.001a
Muscular (e.g., hypertonia, join, neck or jaw pain) 7 (2.9) 5 (2.0) 4 (1.6) 0.632
Nervous system (e.g., dizziness, light headedness, tingling fingers) 24 (9.8) 27 (11.0) 31 (12.6) 0.622
Psychiatric (e.g., anxious, disturbed concentration, suicidal ideation) 12 (4.9) 9 (3.7) 18 (7.3) 0.267
Sleep (e.g., abnormal dreams, insomnia, sleep disturbance) 92 (37.6) 115 (46.9) 149 (60.3) <0.001a
Fatigue (e.g., drowsy, lethargic) 9 (3.7) 19 (7.8) 43 (17.4) <0.001a
Metabolic (e.g., increased appetite, taste perversion) 13 (5.3) 14 (5.7) 23 (9.3) 0.151
Respiratory (e.g., coughing, congestion, shortness of breath) 6 (2.4) 9 (3.7) 10 (4.0) 0.592
Skin (e.g., rash, itchiness, dry skin, redness) 94 (38.4) 81 (33.1) 12 (4.9) <0.001a
Other (e.g., eyes difficult to focus, hot flashes, low sex drive) 21 (8.6) 19 (7.8) 48 (19.4) <0.001a
  1. NRT, standard dose, nicotine replacement therapy; NRT+, flexible, dual-form nicotine replacement therapy; VR, varenicline
  2. aStatistically significant