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Table 1 Baseline and covariate distributions in the EPIC cohort: overall, for premature deaths (prior to age 70 years), and by sex

From: Modifiable causes of premature death in middle-age in Western Europe: results from the EPIC cohort study

  All   Sex
Total Premature deaths Male Female
n = 264,906 % n = 11,930 % n = 92,787 % n = 172,119 %
Age at baseline, years 40–50 67,229 25 1597 13 21,270 23 45,959 27
  50–60 124,557 47 7302 61 44,441 48 80,116 47
  60–70 64,640 24 3031 25 23,492 25 41,148 24
Smoking Never smoker 121,743 46 3365 28 26,462 29 95,281 55
  Former smoker 79,391 30 3489 29 37,967 41 41,424 24
  Current smoker 63,772 24 5076 43 28,358 31 35,414 21
Blood pressure Normal 54,935 21 1793 15 11,253 12 43,682 25
  Pre-hypertension 102,263 39 4023 34 35,844 39 66,419 39
  Hypertension 1 72,429 27 3711 31 30,481 33 41,948 24
  Hypertension 2 35,279 13 2403 20 15,209 16 20,070 12
BMI (kg/m2) < 20 12,001 5 665 6 1447 2 10,554 6
  20–21.9 30,376 11 1244 10 5443 6 24,933 14
  22–24.9 (reference) 77,680 29 3127 26 24,984 27 52,696 31
  25–29.9 (overweight) 103,379 39 4602 39 46,392 50 56,987 33
  30–34.9 (obese) 32,270 12 1672 14 12,391 13 19,879 12
  35+ (very obese) 9200 3 620 5 2130 2 7070 4
Waist-to-hip ratio
(sex-specific fifths)
1 57,336 22 1960 16 19,000 20 38,336 22
2 52,688 20 2102 18 21,985 24 30,703 18
  3 59,966 23 2372 20 18,517 20 41,449 24
  4 45,066 17 2200 18 14,844 16 30,222 18
  5 49,850 19 3296 28 18,441 20 31,409 18
Alcohol intake (drinks/day) 0 32,826 12 1598 13 5941 6 26,885 16
  0–0.5 78,871 30 3054 26 16,748 18 62,123 36
  0.5–1 42,158 16 1580 13 13,255 14 28,903 17
  1–2 50,904 19 2073 17 20,550 22 30,354 18
  2–6 52,468 20 2741 23 29,860 32 22,608 13
  > 6 (women), 6–10 (men) 6683 3 690 6 5437 6 1246 1
  > 10 (men) 996 0 194 2 996 1 0 0
Diet Unhealthy 22,346 8 1746 15 12,617 14 9729 6
  Moderately unhealthy 112,965 43 5792 49 48,238 52 64,727 38
  Moderately healthy 77,110 29 2800 23 20,515 22 56,595 33
  Healthy 52,485 20 1592 13 11,417 12 41,068 24
Physical activity Inactive 61,771 23 3155 26 18,658 20 43,113 25
  Moderately inactive 88,907 34 3753 31 29,062 31 59,845 35
  Moderately active 60,548 23 2531 21 22,015 24 38,533 22
  Active 53,680 20 2491 21 23,052 25 30,628 18
  All 10,524 100 469 100 3899 100 6625 100
Total to HDL cholesterol ratio
(sex-specific fourths)
< 3.79 (men), < 3.09 (women) 2530 24 73 16 933 24 1597 24
3.79–4.64 (men), 3.09–3.76 (women) 2531 24 96 20 921 24 1610 24
  4.64–5.73 (men), 3.76–4.69 (women) 2517 24 118 25 920 24 1597 24
  5.73 + (men), 4.69 + (women) 2503 24 159 34 923 24 1580 24
  missing 443 4 23 5 202 5 241 4
Glycated haemoglobin (%) (sex-specific fourths) < 5.26 3121 30 120 26 1154 30 1967 30
5.26–5.54 (men), 5.26–5.44 (women) 2543 24 100 21 1156 30 1387 21
  5.54–5.72 (men), 5.44–5.72 (women) 2354 22 96 20 619 16 1735 26
  5.72 + 2399 23 142 30 934 24 1465 22
  missing 107 1 11 2 36 1 71 1