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Table 1 Description of trials with follow-up reports

From: Maternal antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation for long-term health benefits in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Location Trial Randomisation scheme Pregnant women allocated (MMN and Fe60 Fol groups only) Mean duration from LMP to beginning of supplementation and when supplementation stoppeda Control content Intervention contentb Mean maternal BMI (kg/m2) Main results from original trial paper (intervention effect relative to comparison group)
Bangladesh JiVitA West et al. [26] Cluster 127,282 women under pregnancy surveillance; 44,567 pregnancies recruited in 596 clusters Median at enrolment 9 weeks until 12 weeks after birth Iron 27 mg, folic acid 600 μg Vit A, thiamine, riboflavin, vit B3, vit B6, folic acid, B12, vit C, vit D, vit E, copper, iodine, iron, selenium, zinc Mean BMI unknown; proportion < 18.5 40 % Birthweight, + 54 g (95 % CI, 41–66 g)
SGA RR, 0.98 (95 % CI, 0.96–1.01)
Gestation, 0.30 weeks (95 % CI, 0.21–0.40 weeks)
Neonatal mortality RR, 0.98 (95 % CI, 0.88–1.20)
Bangladesh MINIMat Persson et al. [27] Individual 1478 102 days until birth Iron 60 mg, folic acid 400 μg and “usual” food supplementation UNIMMAP and “usual” food supplementation 20.3 Birthweight in MMN, 2710 g (95 % CI, 2675–2745 g) Birthweight in control, 2665 g (95 % CI, 2631–2699 g)
Gestation in MMN, 39.1 weeks (95 % CI, 38.9–39.3 weeks); gestation in control, 38.8 weeks (95 % CI, 38.6–39.0 weeks)
Perinatal mortality RR, 0.95 (95 % CI, 0.59–1.5)
Neonatal mortality RR, 1.1 (95 % CI, 0.64–2.0)
Burkina Faso Roberfroid et al. [23] Individual 1428 125 days until 3 months after birth Iron 60 mg, folic acid 400 μg UNIMMAP; also randomly assigned to receive either chloroquine 300 mg weekly or sulfadoxine 1500 mg and pyrimethamine 75 mg once in 2nd and 3rd trimesters as malaria chemoprophylaxis 20.9 Birthweight, + 41 g (95 % CI, –11 to 94 g), adjusted for malaria prevention and health centre
SGA, 0.83 (95 % CI, 0.65–1.07), adjusted for malaria prevention and health centre
Gestation, –0.04 weeks (95 % CI, –0.38 to 0.29 weeks), adjusted for malaria prevention and health centre
Perinatal mortality OR, 1.78 (95 % CI, 0.95–3.32)
Neonatal mortality OR, 2.1 (95 % CI, 0.78–5.64)
China Zeng et al. [28] Cluster 3811 women in 104 clusters 96 days until birth Iron 60 mg, folic acid 400 μg UNIMMAP 20.9 Birthweight in MMN, 3198 g; birthweight in control, 3174 g
SGA in MMN, 16.9 %; SGA in control, 18.9 %
Gestation in MMN, 39.8 weeks; gestation in control, 39.8 weeks
PMR in MMN group, 50.9; PMR in control group, 36.9
NMR in MMN group, 12.4; NMR in control group, 10.7
Guinea Bissau Kaestel et al. [24] Individual 1403 158 days until birth Iron 60 mg, folic acid 400 μg UNIMMAP; if haemoglobin concentration < 70 g/L, given additional iron 60 mg daily; all women received insecticide-treated bednets, weekly antimalarial prophylaxis and malaria treatment if needed 23.3 Birthweight, + 53.0 g (95 % CI, –19 to 125 g)
Perinatal mortality OR, 0.82 (95 % CI, 0.53–1.26)
Neonatal mortality OR, 1.18 (95 % CI, 0.66–2.11)
Indonesia Shankar et al. [29] Cluster 31,290 women, 262 randomly assigned midwives 146 days until 90 days after birth Iron 30 mg, folic acid 400 μg UNIMMAP Not recorded Birthweight, + 21 g (95 % CI, –11 to 53 g)
Perinatal mortality RR, 0.90 (95 % CI, 0.79–1.03)
Neonatal mortality RR, 0.90 (95 % CI, 0.76–1.06)
Mexico Ramakrishnan et al. [25] Individual 873 children born in the trial were subsequently randomised to receive postnatal multiple micronutrients or iron and vitamin A supplements 69 days until birth Iron 60 mg; no supplements on Sundays Vit A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vit B6, folic acid, vit B12, vit C, vit D3, vit E, iron, magnesium, zinc; no supplements taken on Sundays 24.1 Birthweight in MMN, 2981 g; birthweight in control, 2977 g
SGA in MMN, 10.1 %; SGA in control, 11.8 % Gestation in MMN, 39.5 weeks; gestation in control, 39.6 weeks
Nepal Janakpur Osrin et al. [30] Individual 1200 112 days until birth Iron 60 mg, folic acid 400 μg UNIMMAP; if haemoglobin concentration < 70 g/L, given extra iron 60 mg daily and anthelminthic treatment; if symptoms of night-blindness, vitamin A 2000 μg 19.9 Birthweight, + 77 g (95 % CI, 24–130 g)
Gestation, 0.2 weeks (95 % CI, –0.1 to 0.4 weeks)
PMR in MMN, 49.0; PMR in control, 40.5
NMR in MMN, 30.6; NMR in control, 20.0
Nepal Sarlahi Christian et al. [34]
Christian et al. [31]
Cluster 14,036 women under pregnancy surveillance; 2007 pregnancies recruited in 169 clusters 80 days until 12 weeks after birth Iron 60 mg, folic acid 400 μg, Vit A 1000 μg Vit A, thiamine, riboflavin, vit B3, vit B6, folic acid, vit B12, vit C, vit D, vit E, vit K, copper, iron as ferrous fumerate, magnesium and zinc; albendazole was offered in 2nd and 3rd trimesters 19.3 Birthweight in MMN, 2659 g; birthweight in control, 2652 g
SGA in MMN, 53.8 %; SGA in control, 51.7 %
PMR in MMN group, 87.1; PMR in control group, 62.4
NMR in MMN group, 54.0; NMR in control group, 36.3
  1. aData from Margetts et al. [32]
  2. bSee Additional file 1: Table S1 for supplement constituents
  3. BMI body mass index, Fe60 Fol iron 60 mg and folic acid supplement, LMP last menstrual period, MMN multiple micronutrient supplement, NMR neonatal mortality per 1000 livebirths, PMR perinatal mortality per 1000 livebirths, RR relative risk, SGA small for gestational age, UNIMMAP United Nations International Multiple Micronutrient Preparation