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Table 1 Summary of studies providing evidence for bacteria in the human fetoplacental unit in both complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies (marks published evidence)

From: Antibiotic use during pregnancy: how bad is it?

Pregnancy state Method Placenta Amniotic fluid Fetal membranes Reference
Normal pregnancy Microscopy [26, 3740]
Bacterial cultures [16, 37, 39, 4150]
Culture independent methods [14, 26, 37, 38, 41, 43, 45, 5062]
Premature rupture of membranes and preterm labor Microscopy   [41, 61]
Bacterial cultures   [16, 20, 39, 44, 50, 52, 57, 6369]
Culture independent methods [14, 16, 19, 20, 39, 42, 46, 50, 52, 53, 61, 70]
Intrauterine growth restriction Bacterial cultures     [71]
Culture independent methods     [45, 72]
Pre-eclampsia Bacterial cultures   [46, 72, 73]
Culture independent methods   [49, 51, 58, 62, 72, 73]