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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to diagnosis of delirium

From: “Delirium Day”: a nationwide point prevalence study of delirium in older hospitalized patients using an easy standardized diagnostic tool

  Delirium (N = 429, 22.9 %) No delirium (N = 1438, 77.1 %) p value
Age, years 84.8 ± 6.7 81.1 ± 7.6 < .001
Female gender, n (%) 249 (58.0) 833 (57.9) 1.000
Education, years 6.2 ± 3.6 6.8 ± 3.8 .006
ADL before admission, median score (IQR) 1 (0–4) 5 (2–6) < .001
 0 functions spared 186 (43.4) 155 (10.8)  
 1 function spared 66 (15.4) 174 (12.1) < .001
 2 to 5 functions spared 118 (27.5) 471 (33.8)  
 6 functions spared 59 (13.8) 638 (44.4)  
Nutritional status, n (%)    
 Well nourished 156 (36.4) 949 (66.0) < .001
 At risk of malnutrition 215 (50.1) 414 (28.8)
 Malnourished 58 (13.5) 75 (5.2)
Charlson index (excluding dementia), median score (IQR) 2 (1–4) 2 (1–4) .87
 Dementia, n (%) 227 (52.9) 222 (15.4) < .001
No. of drugs, on admission, median score (IQR) 5 (4–-7) 5 (3–7) .56
 Diuretics, n (%) 202 (47.1) 727 (50.6) .22
 Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 241 (56.2) 939 (65.3) .001
 Antiplatelet drugs, n (%) 174 (49.6) 612 (42.6) .47
 Antiarrhythmic drugs, n (%) 39 (9.1) 173 (12.0) .10
 Statins/lipid lowering drugs, n (%) 45 (10.5) 297 (20.7) < .001
 Antidiabetics (including insulin), n (%) 72 (16.8) 284 (19.7) .18
 Antiulcer drugs, n (%) 270 (62.9) 980 (68.2) .04
 Antibiotics, n (%) 186 (43.4) 433 (30.1) < .001
 Benzodiazepines, n (%) 93 (21.7) 360 (25.0) .16
 Antipsychotics, n (%) 107 (28.3) 119 (9.1) < .001
 Antidepressants, n (%) 112 (26.1) 278 (19.3) .003
 Antiepileptics, n (%) 32 (7.5) 93 (6.5) .51
 AChE-I/memantine, n (%) 15 (3.5) 24 (1.7) .03
Feeding tubes (NT or PEG), n (%) 20 (4.7) 20 (1.4) < .001
Venous catheter, n (%) 244 (56.9) 694 (42.0) < .001
Urinary catheter, n (%) 199 (46.4) 340 (23.6) < .001
Physical restraints, n (%) 268 (62.5) 427 (29.7) < .001
  1. Data are expressed as mean + SD unless otherwise specified; IQR interquartile range, p value: significance at one-way ANOVA or t test and at Kruskal-Wallis test or Mann-Whitney U test for normally and abnormally distributed data, respectively
  2. ADL Activities of Daily Living score, AChE-I acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, NT nasogastric tube, PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy