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Table 2 Participant characteristics according to settings of admission

From: “Delirium Day”: a nationwide point prevalence study of delirium in older hospitalized patients using an easy standardized diagnostic tool

  Rehabilitation (N = 250) Geriatrics (N = 1154) Orthopedics (N = 107) Neurology (N = 158) Int. Medicine (N = 198) p value
Age, years 80.4 ± 7.7b,d 83.2 ± 7.1 a,c,d,e 80.8 ± 8.4 b,d 77.7 ± 7.2 a,b,c,e 80.7 ± 7.7 b,d <0.001
Female gender, n (%) 153 (61.2) 679 (58.8) 72 (67.3)e 81 (51.3) 97 (49.0)c 0.005
Education, years 7.3 ± 3.7b,e 6.5 ± 3.8 a 7.2 ± 4.5 7.0 ± 3.7 6.9 ± 3.4a 0.004
ADL before admission, mean score 5 (1–6)b 4 (1–6)a,c,d,e 5 (3–6)b 5 (2–6)b 5 (2–6)b <0.001
 0 functions spared, n (%) 32 (12.8) 255 (22.1) 8 (7.5) 22 (13.9) 24 (12.1)  
 1 function spared, n (%) 34 (13.6) 156 (13.5) 9 (8.4) 16 (10.1) 25 (12.6) <0.001
 2 to 5 functions spared, n (%) 92 (36.8) 349 (30.2) 41 (38.3) 45 (28.5) 62 (31.3)  
 6 functions spared, n (%) 92 (36.8) 394 (34.1) 49 (45.8) 75 (47.5) 87 (43.9)  
Nutritional status, n (%)       
 Well nourished 171 (68.4)b,d 601 (52.1)a,d,e 61 (57.0)d 130 (82.3)a,b,c 142 (71.7)b <0.001
 At risk of malnutrition 60 (24.0)a 457 (39.6)b,d,e 37 (34.6)d 27 (17.1)b,c 48 (24.2)b
 Malnourished 19 (7.6)d 96 (8.3)d 9 (8.4)d 1 (0.6)a,b,c 8 (4.0)
Charlson index (excluding dementia) 1 (0–3) b,e 3 (1–5) a,c,d 1 (0–3) b,e 2 (1–3)b,e 3 (1–4) a,c,d <0.001
 Dementia, n (%) 50 (20.0)d 304 (26.3)d 18 (16.8) 60 (38.0)a,b,e 33 (16.7) d <0.001
No. drugs, on admission 5 (3–6)e 5 (4–7)c 4 (3–6)b 5 (3–6)e 6 (4–7)a,d <0.001
 Diuretics, n (%) 122 (48.8)d 624 (54.1)c,e 36 (33.6)b 80 (31.6)a,b,e 97 (49.0)d <0.001
 Antihypertensive, n (%) 157 (62.8) 723 (62.7) 62 (57.9) 99 (62.7) 139 (70.2) 0.228
 Antiplatelet drugs, n (%) 93 (37.2)d 473 (41.0)d 37 (34.6)d 80 (31.6)a,b,c,e 97 (49.0)d <0.001
 Antiarrhythmic drugs, n (%) 27 (10.8) 139 (12.0) 7 (6.5) 11 (7.0) 28 (14.1) 0.106
 Statins/lipid lowering drugs, n (%) 56 (22.4) 183 (15.9)d 15 (14.0) 41 (25.9)b 47 (23.7) 0.001
 Antidiabetics (including insulin), n (%) 34 (13.6) 227 (19.7) 18 (16.8) 30 (19.0) 47 (23.7) 0.082
 Antiulcer drugs, n (%) 166 (66.4) 783 (67.9)d 74 (69.2) 87 (55.1)b,e 140 (70.7)d 0.017
 Antibiotics, n (%) 26 (10.4)b,c,e 448 (38.8)a,d 38 (35.5)a,d 22 (13.9)b,c,e 85 (42.9) a,d <0.001
 Benzodiazepines, n (%) 74 (29.6) 259 (22.4) 25 (23.4) 51 (32.3) 44 (22.2) 0.018
 Antipsychotics, n (%) 29 (11.6)d 163 (14.1)d 10 (9.3)d 42 (26.6)a,b,c,e 19 (9.6)d <0.001
 Antidepressants, n (%) 60 (24.0) 226 (19.6)d 22 (20.6) 50 (31.6)b,e 32 (12.6)d 0.003
 Antiepileptics, n (%) 24 (9.6)c,d 61 (5.3)d 0a,d 34 (21.5)a,b,c,e 6 (3.0)d <0.001
 AChE-I/memantine, n (%) 4 (1.6) 22 (1.9)d 1 (0.9) 10 (6.3)b 1 (1.0) 0.003
Feeding tubes (NT or PEG), n (%) 3 (1.2) 23 (2.0) 4 (3.7) 5 (3.2) 5 (2.5) 0.492
Venous catheter, n (%) 26 (10.4)b,c,d,e 577 (50.0)a,c,d,e 75 (70.1)a,b,d 34 (21.5)a,b,c,e 136 (68.7) a,b,d <0.001
Urinary catheter, n (%) 28 (11.2)b,c,d,e 364 (31.5)a,c 66 (61.7)a,b,d,e 35 (22.2)a,c 46 (23.2)a,c <0.001
Physical restraints, n (%) 68 (27.2)b 465 (40.3)a 44 (41.1) 52 (32.9) 62 (31.1) <0.001
  1. Data are expressed as mean + SD unless otherwise specified; IQR interquartile range, ADL Activities of Daily Living score, AChE-I acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, NT nasogastric tube, PEG percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy
  2. p denotes significance on ANOVA for continuous or chi-square for categorical variables. Where significant group effects were detected, either Turkey or Dunn or Bonferroni tests indicated significant post hoc differences between individual groups, as follows:
  3. aSignificant difference with Rehabilitation group
  4. bSignificant difference with Geriatrics group
  5. cSignificant difference with Orthopedics group
  6. dSignificant difference with Neurology group
  7. eSignificant difference with Internal Medicine group