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Table 3 Prevalence of CKD risk factors (as expressed in NICE guidelines) stratified for CKD onset; values are numbers (%) unless indicated otherwise

From: An external validation of models to predict the onset of chronic kidney disease using population-based electronic health records from Salford, UK

CKD risk factors No CKD CKD (n = 6038)
Patients with complete follow-up (n = 156,615) Patients with incomplete follow-up (n = 172,361)
Hypertensiona 22,074 (14.1) 24,971 (14.5) 3554 (58.9)
Hypertensive treatmentb 22,122 (14.1) 24,769 (14.4) 3655 (60.5)
Type 1 diabetes mellitusa 703 (0.4) 740 (0.4) 36 (0.6)
Type 2 diabetes mellitusa 5574 (3.6) 6383 (3.7) 1221 (20.2)
History of cardiovascular diseasea 11,096 (7.1) 13,407 (7.8) 2182 (36.1)
History of heart failurea 743 (0.5) 1088 (0.6) 387 (6.4)
History of strokea 1875 (1.2) 2538 (1.5) 509 (8.4)
Peripheral vascular diseasea 2127 (1.4) 2532 (1.5) 331 (5.5)
Kidney stonesa 751 (0.5) 814 (0.5) 64 (1.1)
Rheumatoid arthritisa 1321 (0.8) 1512 (0.9) 142 (2.4)
Systemic lupus erythematosusa 99 (0.1) 104 (0.1) 8 (0.1)
Family history of kidney diseasea 25 (0) 28 (0) 3 (0)
NSAID useb 5101 (3.3) 5389 (3.1) 402 (6.7)
Acute kidney injury in the last 2 years 1975 (1.3) 2633 (1.5) 413 (6.8)
Prostatic hypertrophya 967 (0.6) 1143 (0.7) 173 (2.9)
Haematuriaa 3176 (2) 3574 (2.1) 341 (5.6)
Lithium useb 150 (0.7) 219 (0.1) 52 (0.9)
Tacrolimus useb 4 (0) 5 (0) 2 (0)
Cyclosporin useb 12 (0.1) 20 (0) 6 (0.1)
  1. NSAIDs, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SD, standard deviation
  2. aBased on diagnostic Read codes
  3. bAt least two prescriptions in the 6 months before entry date
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